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Chemistry - Physics - 01.04.2020
A map of reactions helps control molecular properties
A map of reactions helps control molecular properties
Chemical reactions are used to produce all kinds of important molecules such as drugs, agrochemicals and materials. To create a drug with specific properties-polar enough to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the stomach and blood, but greasy enough to pass through cells or cross the blood-brain barrier-chemists usually swap out the starting materials.

Life Sciences - Physics - 01.04.2020
How dopamine drives brain activity
How dopamine drives brain activity
A specialized MRI sensor reveals the neurotransmitter's influence on neural activity throughout the brain. Using a specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensor, MIT neuroscientists have discovered how dopamine released deep within the brain influences both nearby and distant brain regions. Dopamine plays many roles in the brain, most notably related to movement, motivation, and reinforcement of behavior.

Physics - Materials Science - 01.04.2020
Technique reveals how crystals form on surfaces
Technique reveals how crystals form on surfaces
DNA-based self-assembling system sheds light on processes essential for semiconductors and nanotechnology. The process of crystallization, in which atoms or molecules line up in orderly arrays like soldiers in formation, is the basis for many of the materials that define modern life, including the silicon in microchips and solar cells.

Physics - Health - 31.03.2020
New quantum technology could help diagnose and treat heart condition
The conductivity of living organs, such as the heart, could be imaged non-invasively using quantum technology developed by UCL researchers, which has the potential to revolutionise the diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heart condition that causes an irregular and abnormally fast heart rate, potentially leading to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

Physics - Materials Science - 31.03.2020
Way to extract colour from black
Scientists have developed a way of extracting a richer palette of colours from the available spectrum by harnessing disordered patterns inspired by nature that would typically be seen as black. Colours that we see in nature often come from nanoscale patterns that reflect light back in particular ways.

Physics - 30.03.2020
Mystery solved! We finally understand the origin of the colours in the first colour photographs
Mystery solved! We finally understand the origin of the colours in the first colour photographs
A palette of colours on a silver plate: that is what the world's first colour photograph looks like. It was taken by French physicist Edmond Becquerel in 1848. His process was empirical, never explained, and quickly abandoned. A team at the Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation (CNRS/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle/Ministère de la Culture) has now shone a light on this, in collaboration with the SOLEIL synchrotron and the Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (CNRS/Université Paris-Saclay) .

Physics - 30.03.2020
Tiny Optical Cavity Could Make Quantum Networks Possible
Engineers at Caltech have shown that atoms in optical cavities-tiny boxes for light-could be foundational to the creation of a quantum internet. Quantum networks would connect quantum computers through a system that also operates at a quantum, rather than classical, level. In theory, quantum computers will one day be able to perform certain functions faster than classical computers by taking advantage of the special properties of quantum mechanics, including superposition, which allows quantum bits to store information as a 1 and a 0 simultaneously.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 30.03.2020
High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory tests speed of light
High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory tests speed of light
Ultra-high energy gamma rays from the far reaches of the galaxy provide powerful proof that the predictions of relativity, including the constant speed of light, hold to the highest energy extremes yet probed LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 30, 2020-New measurements confirm, to the highest energies yet explored, that the laws of physics hold no matter where you are or how fast you're moving.

Physics - 27.03.2020
Quantum leap for photon entanglement could revolutionise secure communications
A breakthrough in the development of quantum-enhanced optical systems could pave the way for advances in encryption, communication and measurement, scientists say. In a new paper published today in the journal Science Advances, a group of researchers, led by Matteo Clerici at the University of Glasgow's James Watt School of Engineering and colleagues from the UK, Japan and Germany, demonstrates a new method of generating and detecting quantum-entangled photons at a wavelength of 2.1 micrometres.

Physics - Electroengineering - 27.03.2020
Energy-harvesting design aims to turn Wi-Fi signals into usable power
Energy-harvesting design aims to turn Wi-Fi signals into usable power
Device for harnessing terahertz radiation might enable self-powering implants, cellphones, other portable electronics. Any device that sends out a Wi-Fi signal also emits terahertz waves -electromagnetic waves with a frequency somewhere between microwaves and infrared light. These high-frequency radiation waves, known as "T-rays," are also produced by almost anything that registers a temperature, including our own bodies and the inanimate objects around us.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 26.03.2020
New Technique Looks for Dark Matter Traces in Dark Places
New Technique Looks for Dark Matter Traces in Dark Places
Study knocks down some theories for the origin of a mysterious light signature that has puzzled physicists for years So far, the only direct evidence we have for the existence of dark matter is through gravity-based effects on the matter we can see. And these gravitational effects are so pronounced that we know it must make up about 85 percent of all matter in the universe.

Materials Science - Physics - 25.03.2020
Neural networks facilitate optimization in the search for new materials
Neural networks facilitate optimization in the search for new materials
Sorting through millions of possibilities, a search for battery materials delivered results in five weeks instead of 50 years. When searching through theoretical lists of possible new materials for particular applications, such as batteries or other energy-related devices, there are often millions of potential materials that could be considered, and multiple criteria that need to be met and optimized at once.

Physics - Life Sciences - 25.03.2020
Giant cavity in key tuberculosis molecule
SLAC Overview Our Mission, Vision & Values SLAC By The Numbers Director's Office Past SLAC Directors and Deputy Directors Wolfgang (Pief) K. H.

Physics - Electroengineering - 25.03.2020
A nanoscale device that can see through walls
A nanoscale device that can see through walls
Researchers at EPFL have developed a nanodevice that operates more than 10 times faster than today's fastest transistors, and about 100 times faster than the transistors you have on your computers. This new device enables the generation of high-power terahertz waves. These waves, which are notoriously difficult to produce, are useful in a rich variety of applications ranging from imaging and sensing to high-speed wireless communications.

Materials Science - Physics - 24.03.2020
Activating palladium catalysis by light: teaching an old transition metal new tricks
Activating palladium catalysis by light: teaching an old transition metal new tricks
In the production of compounds, chemists have the fundamental goal of finding strategies that are most selective and avoid waste products. Breakthroughs in this area serve, among other things, to drive industrial innovation and drug development. In this context, allylic substitution reactions using catalysts made of so-called transition metals have already led to significant advances in science.

Physics - Life Sciences - 23.03.2020
X-ray imaging Reveals Insights into a Natural Mosquito-Killing Compound
A mosquito-targeting toxin produced by bacteria could lead to safer and more effective anti-mosquito products Many of the chemicals used to deter or eliminate disease-carrying mosquitoes can pollute ecosystems and drive the evolution of even more problematic, insecticide-resistant species - but thankfully, we may have better options soon.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 19.03.2020
New data tests 'theory of everything'
New data tests ’theory of everything’
One of the biggest ideas in physics is the possibility that all known forces, particles, and interactions can be connected in one framework. String theory is arguably the best-known proposal for a 'theory of everything' that would tie together our understanding of the physical universe. If these particles are eventually detected it would change physics forever Christopher Reynolds Despite having many different versions of string theory circulating throughout the physics community for decades, there have been very few experimental tests.

Physics - 19.03.2020
Dancing electrons solve a puzzle
Dancing electrons solve a puzzle
Physicists use extreme infrared laser pulses to reveal frozen electron waves in magnetite Magnetite is the oldest magnetic material known to humans, yet researchers are still mystified by certain aspects of its properties.For example, when the temperature is lowered below 125 kelvins, magnetite changes from a metal to an insulator, its atoms shift to a new lattice structure, and its charges form a complicated ordered pattern.

Life Sciences - Physics - 19.03.2020
High-speed microscope captures fleeting brain signals
Electrical and chemical signals flash through our brains constantly as we move through the world, but it would take a high-speed camera and a window into the brain to capture their fleeting paths. University of California, Berkeley, investigators have now built such a camera: a microscope that can image the brain of an alert mouse 1,000 times a second, recording for the first time the passage of millisecond electrical pulses through neurons.

Physics - Chemistry - 19.03.2020
Nature-Inspired Green Energy Technology Clears Major Development Hurdle
Nature-Inspired Green Energy Technology Clears Major Development Hurdle
Scientist Heinz Frei has spent decades working toward building an artificial version of one of nature's most elegant and effective machines: the leaf. Frei, and many other researchers around the world, seek to use photosynthesis - the sunlight-driven chemical reaction that green plants and algae use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into cellular fuel - to generate the kinds of fuel that can power our homes and vehicles.

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