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Physics - Apr 19
Physics
Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. Intriguingly, the process initially appears to contradict the fundamental laws of physics. If you put a teapot of boiling water on the kitchen table, it will gradually cool down.
Physics - Apr 19

From left to right: Susan Hubbard, Kam-Biu Luk, Jeffrey Long, and Claire Tomlin.

Pharmacology - Apr 19

Withdrawal symptoms following the practice of discontinuation, or abruptly “coming off,” of psychiatric drugs in randomized clinical trials may be mistaken for relapse and bolster the case for continued use of medication, according to two new studies by UCLA researchers published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.

Health - Apr 19

Even after decades of research, cancer remains difficult to treat, in part because of its ability to evade the body's natural defenses found in the immune system. Immunotherapy, which stimulates the body's immune system to find and attack cancer and other diseases, has offered a new avenue for treatment.

Health - Apr 19

Up to half of people who should be screened for colorectal cancer do not get the routine procedure. A blood test to detect colorectal cancer being developed by Stanford doctors and materials scientists could help change that.


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Physics - 19.04.2019
Thermodynamic Magic Enables Cooling without Energy Consumption
Thermodynamic Magic Enables Cooling without Energy Consumption
Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. Intriguingly, the process initially appears to contradict the fundamental laws of physics. If you put a teapot of boiling water on the kitchen table, it will gradually cool down.

Physics - Chemistry - 19.04.2019
American Academy of Arts and Sciences Elects Four Berkeley Lab Scientists
From left to right: Susan Hubbard, Kam-Biu Luk, Jeffrey Long, and Claire Tomlin. (Credit: Berkeley Lab/UC Berkeley) Four scientists from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a prestigious, 239-year old honorary society that recognizes accomplished scholars, scientists and artists in academia, the humanities, arts, business, and government.

Health - Pharmacology - 19.04.2019
Innovative drug delivery improves effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy
Even after decades of research, cancer remains difficult to treat, in part because of its ability to evade the body's natural defenses found in the immune system. Immunotherapy, which stimulates the body's immune system to find and attack cancer and other diseases, has offered a new avenue for treatment.

Pharmacology - Health - 19.04.2019
When psychiatric medications are abruptly discontinued, withdrawal symptoms may be mistaken for relapse
Withdrawal symptoms following the practice of discontinuation, or abruptly “coming off,” of psychiatric drugs in randomized clinical trials may be mistaken for relapse and bolster the case for continued use of medication, according to two new studies by UCLA researchers published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.

Health - Materials Science - 19.04.2019
Possible blood test for colon cancer
Up to half of people who should be screened for colorectal cancer do not get the routine procedure. A blood test to detect colorectal cancer being developed by Stanford doctors and materials scientists could help change that. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. and a growing problem around the world, but not because it's a particularly difficult cancer to detect and halt.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 18.04.2019
Behavioral disorders in kids with autism linked to lower brain connectivity
More than a quarter of children with autism spectrum disorder are also diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorders. For the first time, Yale researchers have identified a possible biological cause: a key mechanism that regulates emotion functions differently in the brains of the children who exhibit disruptive behavior.   The study appears in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.04.2019
Genetic defect causing intellectual disability discovered by Sussex scientists
Researchers at the University of Sussex have discovered a new genetic defect which causes a form of intellectual disability; a finding that will improve screening programmes and help to end a ‘diagnostic odyssey' for families across the globe. ‘X-linked syndromal intellectual disability' (XLID) affects around 3% of the global population with underlying genetic mutations being carried and passed on by unaffected females via their X-chromosome (human females possess two copies of the X chromosome, while males only have one).

Life Sciences - 18.04.2019
Taming the genome's
Taming the genome's "jumping" sequences
EPFL scientists have discovered how a family of proteins that regulates the activity of transposable elements in the genome allows them to make inheritable changes to the growing fetus. The human genome is fascinating. Once predicted to contain about a hundred thousand protein-coding genes, it now seems that the number is closer to twenty thousand, and maybe less.

Life Sciences - Environment - 18.04.2019
Usurp the Burp
How seaweed could help curb cow burps—one of California's greatest sources of methane emissions Marine ecologist Jennifer Smith has been cultivating Asparagopsis taxiformis seaweed in her lab at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Researchers have found that adding small amounts of this seaweed to cattle feed can dramatically reduce methane-laden cow burps.

Life Sciences - Health - 18.04.2019
Next frontier in study of gut bacteria: mining microbial molecules
The human gut harbors trillions of invisible microbial inhabitants, referred to as the microbiota, that collectively produce thousands of unique small molecules. The sources and biological functions of the vast majority of these molecules are unknown. Yale researchers recently applied a new technology to uncover microbiota-derived chemicals that affect human physiology, revealing a complex network of interactions with potentially broad-reaching impacts on human health.

Life Sciences - Computer Science / Telecom - 18.04.2019
Team proposes plan to use bioinformatics, open data to boost science in developing countries
Team proposes plan to use bioinformatics, open data to boost science in developing countries
UCLA computer scientists and their collaborators have devised a plan for the use of cloud computing and big data analysis to allow scientists in developing countries to jumpstart bioinformatics research programs. Bioinformatics is the computational analysis of biological data. Research in this emerging area has broad applications for diagnosing and treating diseases and preventing their spread; and in developing public health strategies and new drugs.

Earth Sciences - 18.04.2019
Data mining digs up hidden clues to major California earthquake triggers
Data mining digs up hidden clues to major California earthquake triggers
Comprehensive new earthquake catalog includes 10 times more quakes than previously identified, with a more detailed picture of stresses and structures in the earth A historic image of quake damage in Long Beach, California, 1933. CREDIT: W.L. Huber, USGS (Public domain) It's very difficult to unpack what triggers larger earthquakes because they are infrequent, but with this new information about a huge number of small earthquakes, we can see how stress evolves in fault systems.

Health - Life Sciences - 18.04.2019
Microbiomes of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with clinical outcomes
MADISON - New research suggests that the microbial communities associated with chronic wounds common in diabetic patients affect whether those wounds heal or lead to amputations. Work led by University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology Lindsay Kalan and her colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania found that particular strains of the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus exclusively infected diabetic foot ulcers that never healed, indicating these strains may delay healing.

Physics - Materials Science - 18.04.2019
Electric Skyrmions Charge Ahead for Next-Generation Data Storage
Electric Skyrmions Charge Ahead for Next-Generation Data Storage
Berkeley Lab-led research team makes a chiral skyrmion crystal with electric properties; puts new spin on future information storage applications VIDEO: Simulation of a single polar skyrmion. Red arrows signify that this is a left-handed skyrmion. The other arrows represent the angular distribution of the dipoles.

Astronomy / Space Science - 18.04.2019
New satellite data sets reveal flood risk for vulnerable populations
Scientists from the University of Bristol have modelled the likelihood of flooding in some of the world's most hazardous zones to an unparalleled degree of accuracy. Their insights could help people and governments better protect themselves against risk and flood losses. As reported today (Thursday 18 April), experts in flood risk and environmental uncertainty analysed detailed hazard maps of 18 countries across Latin America, Asia and Africa against data developed by Facebook's Connectivity Labs detailing population density in those countries.

Health - 17.04.2019
Risk factors identified for patients undergoing knee replacements
Risk factors identified for patients undergoing knee replacements
In the largest study of its kind, researchers from the Musculoskeletal Research Unit at the University of Bristol have identified the most important risk factors for developing severe infection after knee replacement. Patients who are under 60 years of age, males, those with chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, liver disease, and a higher body mass index are at increased risk of having the joint replacement redone (known as revision) due to infection.

Life Sciences - 17.04.2019
Making room for genome regulation
Making room for genome regulation
Chromatin remodelers have the ability to move nucleosomes, which represent a physical barrier for access to DNA. Work by the group of Dirk Schübeler helps to better understand how remodelers orchestrate the global organization of nucleosomes in mammals. In a study published in Nature, the researchers uncovered how two classes of remodelers selectively mediate the binding of distinct transcription factors.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.04.2019
Scientists restore some functions in a pig’s brain hours after death
Circulation and cellular activity were restored in a pig's brain four hours after its death, a finding that challenges long-held assumptions about the timing and irreversible nature of the cessation of some brain functions after death, Yale scientists report April 17 . The brain of a postmortem pig obtained from a meatpacking plant was isolated and circulated with a specially designed chemical solution.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 17.04.2019
Scientists invent way to trap mysterious ’dark world’ particle at Large Hadron Collider
Now that they've identified the Higgs boson, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have set their sights on an even more elusive target. All around us is dark matter and dark energy-the invisible stuff that binds the galaxy together, but which no one has been able to directly detect. "We know for sure there's a dark world, and there's more energy in it than there is in ours," said LianTao Wang, a University of Chicago professor of physics who studies how to find signals in large particle accelerators like the LHC.

Health - 17.04.2019
Breast cancer blood test could help to spot relapse earlier
Breast cancer blood test could help to spot relapse earlier
A simple blood test could help to detect breast cancer relapse up to two years earlier than imaging in patients with early-stage breast cancer. In a small study, carried out by the University of Leicester and Imperial College London and funded by Cancer Research UK, researchers showed that the blood test was able to detect 89 per cent of all relapses, on average 8.9 months quicker than imaging.
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