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Earth Sciences - Environment - 13.06.2024
Video analysis of Iceland 2010 eruption could improve volcanic ash forecasts for aviation safety
Video analysis of Iceland 2010 eruption could improve volcanic ash forecasts for aviation safety
Video footage of Iceland's 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption is providing researchers from the University of Cambridge with rare, up-close observations of volcanic ash clouds - information that could help better forecast how far explosive eruptions disperse their hazardous ash particles. When Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 2010, it ejected roughly 250 million tonnes of volcanic ash into the atmosphere: much of which was blown over Europe and into flight paths.

Life Sciences - 11.06.2024
What’s going on in our brains when we plan?
Study uncovers how the brain simulates possible future actions by drawing from our stored memories. In pausing to think before making an important decision, we may imagine the potential outcomes of different choices we could make. While this 'mental simulation' is central to how we plan and make decisions in everyday life, how the brain works to accomplish this is not well understood.

Astronomy / Space - 06.06.2024
Earliest detection of metal challenges what we know about the first galaxies
Earliest detection of metal challenges what we know about the first galaxies
Astronomers have detected carbon in a galaxy just 350 million years after the Big Bang, the earliest detection of any element in the universe other than hydrogen. Using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), an international team of astronomers led by the University of Cambridge observed a very young galaxy in the early universe and found that it contained surprising amounts of carbon, one of the seeds of life as we know it.

Environment - 05.06.2024
Electrified charcoal 'sponge' can soak up CO2 directly from the air
Electrified charcoal ’sponge’ can soak up CO2 directly from the air
Researchers have developed a low-cost, energy-efficient method for making materials that can capture carbon dioxide directly from the air. The first and most urgent thing we've got to do is reduce carbon emissions worldwide, but greenhouse gas removal is also thought to be necessary to achieve net zero emissions and limit the worst effects of climate change.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 05.06.2024
'Missing' sea sponges discovered
’Missing’ sea sponges discovered
The discovery, published in Nature, opens a new window on early animal evolution. At first glance, the simple, spikey sea sponge is no creature of mystery. No brain. No gut. No problem dating them back 700 million years. Yet convincing sponge fossils only go back about 540 million years, leaving a 160-million-year gap in the fossil record.

Health - Life Sciences - 05.06.2024
Exercising during pregnancy normalises eating behaviours in offspring from obese mice
Exercising during pregnancy normalises eating behaviours in offspring from obese mice
Maternal obesity in pregnancy changes the eating behaviours of offspring by increasing long-term levels of particular molecules known as microRNAs in the part of the brain that controls appetite - but this can be changed by exercise during pregnancy, a study in obese mice has suggested.

Health - Life Sciences - 04.06.2024
Exercising during pregnancy normalises eating behaviors in offspring from obese mice
Exercising during pregnancy normalises eating behaviors in offspring from obese mice
Maternal obesity in pregnancy changes the eating behaviors of offspring by increasing long-term levels of particular molecules known as microRNAs in the part of the brain that controls appetite - but this can be changed by exercise during pregnancy, a study in obese mice has suggested.

Mathematics - Innovation - 04.06.2024
New open-source platform allows users to evaluate performance of AI-powered chatbots
Researchers have developed a platform for the interactive evaluation of AI-powered chatbots such as ChatGPT. Anyone using an LLM, for any application, should always pay attention to the output and verify it themselves Albert Jiang A team of computer scientists, engineers, mathematicians and cognitive scientists, led by the University of Cambridge, developed an open-source evaluation platform called CheckMate, which allows human users to interact with and evaluate the performance of large language models (LLMs).

Environment - Life Sciences - 03.06.2024
Rainforest wildlife under threat as below-canopy temperatures rise
Rainforest wildlife under threat as below-canopy temperatures rise
Assumptions that tropical forest canopies protect from the effects of climate change are unfounded, say researchers. A severe risk is that species are no longer able to survive within tropical forests as climate change intensifies, further exacerbating the global extinction crisis and degrading rainforest carbon stocks.

Life Sciences - Environment - 30.05.2024
Cuckoos evolve to look like their hosts - and form new species in the process
Cuckoos evolve to look like their hosts - and form new species in the process
Two decades of cuckoo research have helped scientists to explain how battles between species can cause new species to arise This exciting new finding could potentially apply to any pairs of species that are in battle with each other..the coevolutionary arms race could cause new species to emerge - and increase biodiversity on our planet Rebecca Kilner The theory of coevolution says that when closely interacting species drive evolutionary changes in each other this can lead to speciation - the evolution of new species.

Astronomy / Space - Physics - 30.05.2024
Earliest, most distant galaxy discovered with James Webb Space Telescope
Earliest, most distant galaxy discovered with James Webb Space Telescope
The two earliest and most distant galaxies yet confirmed, dating back to only 300 million years after the Big Bang, have been discovered using NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), an international team of astronomers today announced.

Microtechnics - Life Sciences - 24.05.2024
Imperceptible sensors made from 'electronic spider silk' can be printed directly on human skin
Imperceptible sensors made from ’electronic spider silk’ can be printed directly on human skin
Researchers have developed a method to make adaptive and eco-friendly sensors that can be directly and imperceptibly printed onto a wide range of biological surfaces, whether that's a finger or a flower petal. The method, developed by researchers from the University of Cambridge, takes its inspiration from spider silk, which can conform and stick to a range of surfaces.

Psychology - Social Sciences - 22.05.2024
One in two children with ADHD experience emotional problems
Cambridge scientists have shown that problems regulating emotions - which can manifest as depression, anxiety and explosive outbursts - may be a core symptom of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Life Sciences - Environment - 17.05.2024
Earth's earliest sea creatures drove evolution by stirring the water
Earth’s earliest sea creatures drove evolution by stirring the water
3D reconstructions suggest that simple marine animals living over 560 million years ago drove the emergence of more complex life by mixing the seawater around them It's exciting to learn that the very first animals from 580 million years ago had a significant impact on their environment, despite not being able to move or swim.

Astronomy / Space - 16.05.2024
Webb detects most distant black hole merger to date
An international team of astronomers, led by the University of Cambridge, has used the James Webb Space Telescope to find evidence for an ongoing merger of two galaxies and their massive black holes when the Universe was only 740 million years old. This marks the most distant detection of a black hole merger ever obtained and the first time that this phenomenon has been detected so early in the Universe.

Environment - History / Archeology - 14.05.2024
2023 was the hottest summer in two thousand years
Researchers have found that 2023 was the hottest summer in the Northern Hemisphere in the past two thousand years, almost four degrees warmer than the coldest summer during the same period. When you look at the long sweep of history, you can see just how dramatic recent global warming is Ulf Büntgen Although 2023 has been reported as the hottest year on record, the instrumental evidence only reaches back as far as 1850 at best, and most records are limited to certain regions.

Health - Pharmacology - 13.05.2024
Birth by C-section more than doubles odds of measles vaccine failure
Researchers say it is vital that children born by caesarean section receive two doses of the measles vaccine for robust protection against the disease. A study by the University of Cambridge, UK, and Fudan University, China, has found that a single dose of the measles jab is up to 2.6 times more likely to be completely ineffective in children born by C-section, compared to those born naturally.

Health - Life Sciences - 08.05.2024
’Wraparound’ implants represent new approach to treating spinal cord injuries
A tiny, flexible electronic device that wraps around the spinal cord could represent a new approach to the treatment of spinal injuries, which can cause profound disability and paralysis. Because of recent advances in both engineering and neurosurgery, the planets have aligned and we've made major progress in this important area George Malliaras A team of engineers, neuroscientists and surgeons from the University of Cambridge developed the devices and used them to record the nerve signals going back and forth between the brain and the spinal cord.

Health - Pharmacology - 06.05.2024
New vaccine effective against coronaviruses that haven’t even emerged yet
Researchers have developed a new vaccine technology that has been shown in mice to provide protection against a broad range of coronaviruses with potential for future disease outbreaks - including ones we don't even know about Our focus is to create a vaccine that will protect us against the next coronavirus pandemic, and have it ready before the pandemic has even started.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 03.05.2024
Ice shelves fracture under weight of meltwater lakes
Ice shelves fracture under weight of meltwater lakes
Heavy pooling meltwater can fracture ice, potentially leading to ice shelf collapse When air temperatures in Antarctica rise and glacier ice melts, water can pool on the surface of floating ice shelves, weighing them down and causing the ice to bend. Now, for the first time in the field, researchers have shown that ice shelves don't just buckle under the weight of meltwater lakes - they fracture.
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