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Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 18.04.2024
Using deep learning to image the Earth’s planetary boundary layer
Lincoln Laboratory researchers are using AI to get a better picture of the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface. Their techniques could improve weather and drought prediction. Although the troposphere is often thought of as the closest layer of the atmosphere to the Earth's surface, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) - the lowest layer of the troposphere - is actually the part that most significantly influences weather near the surface.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 17.04.2024
First Nitrogen-Fixing Organelle
Scientists Discover First Nitrogen-Fixing Organelle " layout="backlink-only" Adapted from a release by Erin Malsbury at UC Santa Cruz Modern biology textbooks assert that only bacteria can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that is usable for life. Plants that fix nitrogen, such as legumes, do so by harboring symbiotic bacteria in root nodules.

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 16.04.2024
New analysis reveals brutal history of Winchcombe meteorite's space journey
New analysis reveals brutal history of Winchcombe meteorite’s space journey
Intensive new nano-analysis of the Winchcombe meteorite has revealed how it was affected by water and repeatedly smashed apart and reassembled on the journey it took through space before landing in an English sheep field in 2021. Researchers from dozens of institutions in the UK, Europe, Australia, and the USA collaborated on the research.

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 11.04.2024
A New Type of Seismic Sensor to Detect Moonquakes
During the Apollo missions of the 1970s, several seismometers were flown to the Moon, where they collected data on lunar seismic trembling for eight years. The data showed some lunar quakes were as powerful as a magnitude 5. Unlike the Earth, the Moon is not tectonically active. Lunar quakes have different origins: Some are caused by day-to-night thermal differences as the surface varies in temperature, others that occur deeper may be caused by Earth's gravitational pull, and still others are caused by the Moon slowly cooling and contracting over time.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.04.2024
A rich 125,000-year-old coastal ecosystem discovered under Ariane 6 in French Guiana
A rich 125,000-year-old coastal ecosystem discovered under Ariane 6 in French Guiana
An international consortium of paleontologists, geologists and biologists describes the discovery of fossil assemblages spanning the last 130,000 years beneath the Ariane 6 rocket launch site in Kourou, French Guiana. The consortium, coordinated by scientists from the Montpellier Institute of Evolutionary Sciences (Université de Montpellier/CNRS/IRD) and the Université de Guyane/Géosciences Montpellier, includes Frédéric Quillévéré from the Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon : Terre, Planètrs, Environnement (LGL-TPE, CNRS/Université Lyon 1/ENS de Lyon/Université Jean Monnet).

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.04.2024
Tiny plastic particles are found everywhere
Tiny plastic particles are found everywhere
Microplastic particles can be found in the most remote ocean regions on earth. In Antarctica, pollution levels are even higher than previously assumed. This is one finding of a recent study involving researchers from the University of Basel. It's not the first study on microplastics in Antarctica that researchers from the University of Basel and the Alfred-Wegener Institute (AWI) have conducted.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 08.04.2024
Global warming is sinking meteorites
Global warming is sinking meteorites
More than 300,000 meteorites lie on the Antarctic ice. They contain an unprecedented wealth of information about our solar system. With every tenth of a degree of global warming, thousands of meteorites sink. Researchers from WSL and ETH recommend that their collection be promoted. The Antarctic holds a valuable treasure of around 300,000 meteorites lying on the surface of the ice.

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 05.04.2024
CHEOPS detects a ''rainbow'' on an exoplanet
CHEOPS detects a ’’rainbow’’ on an exoplanet
New observations from the space telescope point to the existence of a 'glory' in the atmosphere of WASP-76b, a luminous phenomenon like a rainbow. The CHEOPS space telescope, whose scientific operations centre is based at the University of Geneva , is providing new information on the mysterious exoplanet WASP-76b.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 03.04.2024
A new computational technique could make it easier to engineer useful proteins
MIT researchers plan to search for proteins that could be used to measure electrical activity in the brain. To engineer proteins with useful functions, researchers usually begin with a natural protein that has a desirable function, such as emitting fluorescent light, and put it through many rounds of random mutation that eventually generate an optimized version of the protein.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 02.04.2024
Strengthening Swiss hydropower with science
Strengthening Swiss hydropower with science
Researchers at ETH Zurich led by Robert Boes are developing specific solutions to optimise electricity production from Swiss hydropower plants. This will ensure that hydropower remains the backbone of Switzerland's electricity supply in the future. "Although Swiss hydropower is a proven technology, we must constantly work on optimising it.

Physics - Earth Sciences - 26.03.2024
Shedding Light on Sea Creatures’ Secrets
Exactly how does coral make its skeleton, a sea urchin grow a spine, or an abalone form the mother-of-pearl in its shell? A new study at the Advanced Light Source at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ÜBerkeley Lab) revealed that this process of biomineralization, which sea creatures use to lock carbon away in their bodies, is more complex and diverse than previously thought.

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 25.03.2024
Scientific Drilling Unravels Historical Mystery Surrounding Santorini
Scientific Drilling Unravels Historical Mystery Surrounding Santorini
Santorini is one of the best-studied volcanic archipelagos in the world. An international drilling expedition has now for the first time used a scientific drill ship to explore and investigate the seafloor around the Greek volcanic island. The researchers have uncovered evidence of an underwater eruption in 726 CE, previously known only from historical records.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.03.2024
First global study of coastal seas as carbon dioxide reservoirs possible
First global study of coastal seas as carbon dioxide reservoirs possible
Coastal seas form a complex transition zone between the two largest CO2 sinks in the global carbon cycle: land and ocean. Ocean researchers have now succeeded for the first time in investigating the role of the coastal ocean in a seamless model representation. The team led by Dr. Moritz Mathis from the Cluster of Excellence for Climate Research CLICCS at Universität Hamburg and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon was able to show: The intensity of CO2 uptake is higher in coastal seas than in the open ocean.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.03.2024
How micro- and nanoplastics are infiltrating the Arctic ice
How micro- and nanoplastics are infiltrating the Arctic ice
Environmental scientist Alice Pradel cultivates ice cores in the lab to investigate the transport and accumulation of microand nanoplastics. Her aim in doing so is to better understand material flows in the Arctic ice. "Beat the Microbead" is the name of a campaign launched in 2012 with the aim of reducing the use of microplastics in cosmetic products in order to minimise negative effects on the environment and people.

Earth Sciences - 25.03.2024
With a new experimental technique, MIT engineers probe the mechanisms of landslides and earthquakes
With a new experimental technique, MIT engineers probe the mechanisms of landslides and earthquakes
The behavior of granular materials has been difficult to visualize, but a new method reveals their internal forces in 3D detail. Granular materials, those made up of individual pieces, whether grains of sand or coffee beans or pebbles, are the most abundant form of solid matter on Earth. The way these materials move and react to external forces can determine when landslides or earthquakes happen, as well as more mundane events such as how cereal gets clogged coming out of the box.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 21.03.2024
The natural vegetation cover acts as a reservoir of biodiversity in the face of climate changes
The natural vegetation cover acts as a reservoir of biodiversity in the face of climate changes
A team from the Desertification Research Centre (CIDE) collaborates in a study on the role of the so-called 'facilitating plants' in the survival of other plants in adverse conditions. The implications of this work, in which a total of 141 different plant species from the south of the Iberian Peninsula were recorded, are very important in the current context of climate change.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 20.03.2024
Detecting storms thanks to GPS
Detecting storms thanks to GPS
Researchers at ETH Zurich have succeeded in detecting heavy precipitation events directly with GPS data. The results of their study could significantly improve meteorological monitoring and forecasting. An exceptionally severe storm swept over Zurich on 13 July 2021 shortly before 2 a.m.: howling squalls, constant lightning and torrential rain woke people up with a start.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.03.2024
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Frequency of heat days systematically underestimated in many studies
Many studies on the climate crisis focus on researching temperature extremes on a global scale. Scientists at the University of Vienna have now uncovered an error in an established calculation method, leading to a systematic underestimation in the frequency of heat days. The error is based in the previously unnoticed impact of the seasonal cycle on the extreme threshold due to the incorrect application of so called "moving time windows".

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.03.2024
AI-powered system maps corals in 3D in record time
AI-powered system maps corals in 3D in record time
An artificial intelligence system developed at EPFL can produce 3D maps of coral reefs from camera footage in just a few minutes. It marks a major leap forward in deep-sea exploration and conservation capabilities for organizations like the Transnational Red Sea Center (TRSC). Corals often provide a colorful backdrop to photographs of shimmering fish captured by amateur divers.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 18.03.2024
A wetter world recorded in Australian coral colony
Study: Rainfall variability increased with warming in northern Queensland, Australia over the past 280 years (DOI: 10.1038/s43247'024 -01262-5) (available when embargo lifts) When climate scientists look to the future to determine what the effects of climate change may be, they use computer models to simulate potential outcomes such as how precipitation will change in a warming world.
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