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Earth Sciences - Environment - 01.03.2021
Understanding the Spatial and Temporal Dimensions of Landscape Dynamics
Heidelberg geoinformation scientists develop new computer-based method to analyse topographic changes The Earth's surface is subject to continual changes that dynamically shape natural landscapes. Global phenomena like climate change play a role, as do short-term, local events of natural or human origin.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 01.03.2021
Wildfires May Have Larger Effects on Cloud Formation and Climate Change
As the frequency and size of wildfires continues to increase worldwide, new research from Carnegie Mellon University scientists shows how the chemical aging of the particles emitted by these fires can lead to more extensive cloud formation and intense storm development in the atmosphere. The research was published online Advances.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.02.2021
Unique evidence links meteorite impact in Mexico to global extinction
Unique evidence links meteorite impact in Mexico to global extinction
Researchers find asteroid dust in impact crater that signalled end of dinosaurs VUB professor Steven Goderis and his team have published unique evidence linking the extinction of dinosaurs to the impact of an asteroid 66 million years ago. For the first time, the scientists found evidence of dust remnants from an asteroid in the Chicxulub impact crater itself in Mexico.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 25.02.2021
Earth’s Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium 
A new study involving researchers from UCL has found consistent evidence of a decline in ocean currents, with the Gulf Stream System, also known as the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), at its weakest in over 1,000 years.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 25.02.2021
Using Submarine Cables to Detect Earthquakes
Seismologists at Caltech working with optics experts at Google have developed a method to use existing underwater telecommunication cables to detect earthquakes. The technique could lead to improved earthquake and tsunami warning systems around the world. A vast network of more than a million kilometers of fiber optic cable lies at the bottom of Earth's oceans.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 22.02.2021
Brenner Base Tunnel as a Lighthouse Project: Tunnels to become CO2-neutral energy suppliers
Research association led by TU Graz wants to use the heat contained in the discharged tunnel water to supply energy to entire city districts. As part of the FFG programme "City of the Future", a sustainable concept for the city of Innsbruck is being developed. Additional Images for download at the end of the text After completion in about ten years, the Brenner base tunnel is expected to provide relief for transit traffic between Italy and Austria.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 19.02.2021
Life of a pure Martian design
Life of a pure Martian design
Experimental microbially assisted chemolithotrophy provides an opportunity to trace the putative bioalteration processes of the Martian crust. A study on the Noachian Martian breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 composed of ancient (ca. 4.5 Gyr old) crustal materials from Mars, led by ERC grantee Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna, now delivered a unique prototype of microbial life experimentally designed on a real Martian material.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.02.2021
New African groundwater maps reveal widespread resilience to climate change
New African groundwater maps reveal widespread resilience to climate change
Reserves of groundwater in much of the populated parts of Africa are being replenished at rates that could help to protect communities against the damaging effects of climate change, finds a new study co-authored by UCL. Published in the journal Environmental Research Letters , the study has revealed that the long-term groundwater recharge (the rate at which groundwater is replenished) in Africa is approximately 15,000 cubic km per decade - enough to sustain widespread groundwater pumping for drinking water and irrigatation for farming.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 19.02.2021
Release of nutrients from lake-bottom sediments worsens Lake Erie's annual 'dead zone,' could intensify as climate warms
Release of nutrients from lake-bottom sediments worsens Lake Erie’s annual ’dead zone,’ could intensify as climate warms
Robotic laboratories on the bottom of Lake Erie have revealed that the muddy sediments there release nearly as much of the nutrient phosphorus into the surrounding waters as enters the lake's central basin each year from rivers and their tributaries. Excessive phosphorus, largely from agricultural sources, contributes to the annual summer cyanobacteria bloom that plagues Lake Erie's western basin and the central basin's annual "dead zone,” an oxygen-starved region that blankets several thousand square miles of lake bottom and that reduces habitat for fish and other organisms.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 19.02.2021
Getting to the Bottom of Life on Mars
Researchers at Freie Universität Berlin are involved in developing an interactive map of Mars No 030/2021 from Feb 19, 2021 People who are interested in discovering the mysteries of the galaxy can now see what Mars looks like up close thanks to an interactive map developed by researchers from the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing group at Freie Universität Berlin.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 18.02.2021
Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. In the late 1980s and 1990s, researchers at ETH Zurich discovered the first indications that the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface had been steadily declining since the 1950s.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 18.02.2021
Touchdown! NASA's Mars Perseverance Rover Safely Lands on Red Planet
Touchdown! NASA’s Mars Perseverance Rover Safely Lands on Red Planet
The largest, most advanced rover NASA has sent to another world touched down on Mars Thursday, after a 203-day journey traversing 293 million miles. Confirmation of the successful touchdown was announced in mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech manages for NASA, at 3:55 p.m. EST (12:55 p.m. PST).

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 17.02.2021
Stonehenge first stood in Wales
Stonehenge first stood in Wales
Professor Mike Parker Pearson (UCL Institute of Archaeology) discusses his research which has found a dismantled stone circle in west Wales which was moved to Salisbury Plain and rebuilt as Stonehenge. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose History of the Kings of Britain was written in 1136, the mysterious monoliths at Stonehenge were first spirited there by the wizard Merlin, whose army stole them from a mythical Irish stone circle called the Giants' Dance.

Earth Sciences - Social Sciences - 17.02.2021
Global Mapping Projects aid Humanitarian Organisations
Global Mapping Projects aid Humanitarian Organisations
In recent years, free digital world maps like OpenStreetMap (OSM) have become a vital instrument to support humanitarian missions over the entire world. In disaster management as well as the implementation of the United Nations Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs), geodata compiled by the volunteer mapper community open up new possibilities to coordinate aid interventions and carry out sustainability projects.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.02.2021
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance are back on the decline
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance are back on the decline
Global emissions of a potent substance notorious for depleting the Earth's ozone layer - the protective barrier which absorbs the Sun's harmful UV rays - have fallen rapidly and are now back on the decline, according to new research. Two international studies show emissions of CFC-11, one of the many chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) chemicals once widely used in refrigerators and insulating foams, are back on the decline less than two years after the exposure of their shock resurgence in the wake of suspected rogue production.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.02.2021
Streams in agricultural areas benefit from beavers
Streams in agricultural areas benefit from beavers
Beavers are master builders that reshape aquatic landscapes with their dams and lodges. The environments they inhabit experience an increase in the biodiversity of aquatic organisms, for example. Now, for the first time, an Eawag study from the wine-growing region known as "Zürcher Weinland" has shown that this is also true for streams in areas given over largely to agriculture.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 09.02.2021
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance back on decline
Emissions of banned ozone-depleting substance back on decline
After a mysterious and sharp increase between 2012 and 2017 that could be traced to eastern China global emissions of a potent (and banned) substance notorious for depleting the Earth's ozone layer - the protective barrier that absorbs the Sun's harmful UV rays - have fallen rapidly in recent years and are now as low as never before since measurements began in this region in 2008, according to new atmospheric analyses published in "Nature" today.

Earth Sciences - 29.01.2021
Witnesses to Earth's early history
Witnesses to Earth’s early history
Determining the composition of rock in the deepest layer of the Earth's mantle is impossible to do directly. But thanks to isotope measurements of volcanic rocks, ETH researchers are now able to show that the mantle is still home to material from the planet's earliest days. What exactly are the deepest parts of the Earth made of? Geoscientists apply highly sophisticated techniques in pursuit of this question.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 27.01.2021
Pioneering research unravels hidden origins of Eastern Asia's 'land of milk and honey'
Pioneering research unravels hidden origins of Eastern Asia’s ‘land of milk and honey’
A study has revealed for the first time the ancient origins of one of the world's most important ecosystems by unlocking the mechanism which determined the evolution of its mountains and how they shaped the weather there as well as its flora and fauna. It was previously thought Southern Tibet and the Himalaya were instrumental in turning the once barren land of eastern Asia into lush forests and abundant coastal regions which became home to a rich array of plant, animal and marine life, including some of the world's rarest species.

Earth Sciences - Materials Science - 26.01.2021
Geologic history written in garnet sand
Geologic history written in garnet sand
Research team with participation from Göttingen University use secrets trapped in grains of sand to reveal rock journey and formation On a remote island in Papua New Guinea, an international research team including the University of Göttingen has made an important geological discovery from a garnet-rich sand.