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Health - Life Sciences - 14.08.2011
UW Medicine study finds caffeine guards against certain ultraviolet-induced skin cancers at molecular level
UW Medicine study finds caffeine guards against certain ultraviolet-induced skin cancers at molecular level
Caffeine guards against certain skin cancers at the molecular level, according to a study appearing online August 15, 2011, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) that explains how the process likely works. Senior author Paul Nghiem , associate professor of dermatology and pathology at the University of Washington School of Medicine, and colleagues genetically modified mice so the rodents would have diminished function of a protein enzyme in their skin known as ATR.

Health - Chemistry - 12.08.2011
New treatment option for advanced prostate cancer
Prostate cancer that has become resistant to hormone treatment and that does not respond to radiation or chemotherapy requires new methods of treatment. By attacking stem cell-like cells in prostate cancer, researchers at Lund University are working on a project to develop a new treatment option.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.08.2011
Number of genes associated with MS doubles
Number of genes associated with MS doubles
Scientists have identified 29 new genetic variants linked to multiple sclerosis, providing key insights into the biology of a very debilitating neurological disease. Many of the genes implicated in the study are relevant to the immune system, shedding light onto the immunological pathways that underlie the development of multiple sclerosis.

Health - Economics / Business - 09.08.2011
Research on TB tests prompts first-ever WHO negative policy
McGill / RI MUHC-led teams publish on inaccuracy and poor cost-effectiveness of widely used TB antibody tests No policy has ever recommended serological (antibody) tests to detect active tuberculosis (TB) yet dozens of these blood tests are currently marketed and sold in developing countries where regulation is weak or non-existent.

Health - Administration - 09.08.2011
TB antibody detection tests fail to diagnose tuberculosis accurately
TB antibody detection tests fail to diagnose tuberculosis accurately
Commercially available serological tests fail to accurately diagnose active tuberculosis (TB) and they are not as cost effective as other recommended TB tests, according to two papers published Aug. 9 in the Public Library of Science (PLoS) Medicine. The researchers note that these tests often provide misleading results that may harm patients.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.08.2011
Genetic link to human intelligence
Scientists have provided the first direct biological evidence for a genetic contribution to people's intelligence. Previous studies on twins and adopted people suggested that there is a substantial genetic contribution to thinking skills, but this new study - published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry - is the first to find a genetic contribution by testing people's DNA for genetic variations.

Health - Mechanical Engineering - 04.08.2011
Simple physics predicts how the gut forms
Simple physics predicts how the gut forms
Growing embryos face a tight squeeze when it's time to pack internal organs. A new study published in Nature Aug. 4 shows how simple mechanical forces between neighboring types of tissue help organs take shape and grow. The work is among the first to uncover how an embryo develops from groups of cells into distinctly shaped organs.

Health - Life Sciences - 04.08.2011
A natural food preservative that kills food-borne bacteria
Researchers have discovered and received a patent for a naturally occurring lantibiotic — a peptide produced by a harmless bacteria — that could be added to food to kill harmful bacteria like salmonella, E. coli and listeria. The U of M lantibiotic is the first natural preservative found to kill gram-negative bacteria, typically the harmful kind.

Health - Social Sciences - 03.08.2011
New antidepressants increase risks for elderly
New antidepressants increase risks for elderly
PA 237/11 Older people taking new generation antidepressants are at more risk of dying or suffering from a range of serious health conditions including stroke, falls, fractures and epilepsy, a study involving researchers at The University of Nottingham has found.

Health - History / Archeology - 03.08.2011
Eating disorders and fertility research
Eating disorders and fertility research
Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are associated with fertility problems and negative attitudes to pregnancy, according to a study from King's scientists. The research also revealed high rates of unplanned pregnancies in women with a history of anorexia, suggesting they may be underestimating their chances of conceiving.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.08.2011
New method for early detection of Alzheimer's disease
New method for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease
Scientists at The University of Manchester have discovered that measurements of brain activity could be used to predict Alzheimer's disease in people with mild memory problems. It's hoped the study, which was part-funded by Alzheimer's Research UK, will help improve clinical trials to find new treatments for the disease.

Health - Life Sciences - 02.08.2011
New research challenges our understanding of cell communication
New research challenges our understanding of cell communication
Cells often communicate with one another using pulsatile signals, where information is conveyed in pulse frequency as well as amplitude. This raises the question of how cells decode pulsatile signals, a question that lies at the core of our understanding of how the brain controls reproduction.

Health - Chemistry - 02.08.2011
Researchers map minority microbes in the colon
Researchers map minority microbes in the colon
CHAMPAIGN, lll. They make up less than one-hundredth of 1 percent of the microbes that live in the colon, but the bacteria and archaea that sop up hydrogen in the gut are fundamental to colon health. In a new study, researchers take a first look at these "hydrogenotrophic" microbes, mapping where they live and how abundant they are in different parts of the lower intestine.

Health - Physics - 02.08.2011
New method for the diagnosis of cancer
New method for the diagnosis of cancer
Researchers have developed a new breast cancer diagnostic method, and is now carrying out first tests on non-preserved human tissue. This new method should be able to reveal structures that cannot be seen using conventional mammography. Standard procedures only determine the extent to which X-rays are attenuated by various tissue structures.

Life Sciences - Health - 29.07.2011
Plant immunity discovery boosts chances of disease-resistant crops
Researchers have opened up the black box of plant immune system genetics, boosting our ability to produce disease- and pest-resistant crops in the future. An international consortium of researchers, including Professor Jim Beynon at the University of Warwick, has used a systems biology approach to uncover a huge network of genes that all play a part in defending plants against attacks from pests and diseases - a discovery that will make it possible to explore new avenues for crop improvement and in doing so ensure future food security.

Health - Economics / Business - 28.07.2011
Laws that encourage healthier lifestyles protect lives and save the NHS money
Research: Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease prevention in whole populations: modelling study The introduction of legislation that restricts unhealthy food, for example by reducing salt content and eliminating industrial trans fats, would prevent thousands of cases of heart disease in England and Wales and save the NHS millions of pounds, finds research published on bmj.com | today.

Health - Psychology - 28.07.2011
Lifestyle choices keep health all in the mind
Lifestyle choices keep health all in the mind
Physical activity and being a volunteer assist mental wellbeing, a new ACT research report has found. Prepared by the Centre for Mental Health Research at ANU and the ACT Government Health Directorate, Mental Health and Wellbeing in the ACT showcases results from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project.

Life Sciences - Health - 28.07.2011
Researchers Increase the Potency of HIV-Battling Proteins
Researchers Increase the Potency of HIV-Battling Proteins
If one is good, two can sometimes be better. Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have certainly found this to be the case when it comes to a small HIV-fighting protein. The protein, called cyanovirin-N (CV-N), is produced by a type of blue-green algae and has gained attention for its ability to ward off several diseases caused by viruses, including HIV and influenza.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 28.07.2011
Beef up your muscles, reduce your diabetes risk
More muscle mass — and not just less body fat — is critical to lowering your risk for type 2 diabetes, a new UCLA study suggests.

Health - Earth Sciences - 27.07.2011
Home is where the healthy meal is
New study finds home setting nurtures better food choices Can a cozy dining table and nice music prompt people to reach for the greens and go light on dessert? So suggests a new study probing why people tend to eat more-nutritious meals at home than away from home. The findings, based on data from 160 women who reported their emotional states before and after meals, add to mounting evidence that psychological factors may help override humans? wired-in preference for high-fat, sugary foods.