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Life Sciences - Environment - 12.07.2024
How Plant Cold Specialists Can Adapt to the Environment
How Plant Cold Specialists Can Adapt to the Environment
International team of evolutionary biologists investigate genomic underpinnings for the adaptive potential of spoonworts Plant cold specialists like the spoonworts have adapted well to the cold climates of the Ice Ages. As cold and warm periods alternated, they developed a number of species that also resulted in a proliferation of the genome.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 12.07.2024
Slimed, sealed and secreted: Frog glue, and what makes it stick
Slimed, sealed and secreted: Frog glue, and what makes it stick
A multidisciplinary team of researchers from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, University of Mons, VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology and KU Leuven has deciphered one of the most fascinating but least understood chemical defence adaptations in the Animal Kingdom: glue. In a newly published article in Nature Communications , they report on how changes in the structure and expression of two proteins underlay the parallel evolution of defence glues in distantly related frog lineages.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.07.2024
Genetic insights shed light on how and where bacteria form brightly coloured colonies without pigments
Some bacteria form colonies that display striking, reflective colours. New genetic insights into the formation of such colours allowed an interdisciplinary, international team of researchers to identify the environments and bacterial groups in which these colours are found. Doing so, the team has made a start in understanding the function of these colours in bacteria.

Life Sciences - Computer Science - 12.07.2024
Neural network training made easy with smart hardware
Neural network training made easy with smart hardware
Led by Yoeri van de Burgt and Marco Fattori, TU/e researchers have solved a major problem related to neuromorphic chips. The new research is published in Science Advances. Large-scale neural network models form the basis of many AI-based technologies such as neuromorphic chips, which are inspired by the human brain.

Health - Life Sciences - 12.07.2024
Respiratory bacteria ’turns off’ immune system to survive
Researchers from The University of Queensland have identified how a common bacterium is able to manipulate the human immune system during respiratory infections and cause persistent illness. The research, led by Professor Ulrike Kappler from UQ's School of Chemical and Molecular Biosciences , studied the virulence mechanisms of Haemophilus influenzae , a bacterium that plays a significant role in worsening respiratory tract infections.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.07.2024
New ways to study spinal cord malformations in embryos
New ways to study spinal cord malformations in embryos
A group of scientists at UCL have successfully created mechanical force sensors directly in the developing brains and spinal cords of chicken embryos, which they hope will improve understanding and prevention of birth malformations such as spina bifida. The study, published in Nature Materials and in collaboration with the University of Padua and the Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine (VIMM), uses innovative biotechnologies to measure the mechanical forces exerted by the embryo during its development.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.07.2024
New discovery hope for people with neurodevelopment disorders
A global collaboration involving University of Manchester scientists has discovered the gene whose variants potentially causing neurodevelopmental disorders in hundreds of thousands of people across the world. The findings of the University of Oxford led study, published in Nature , are an exciting first step towards the development of future treatments for the disorders which have devastating impacts on learning, behaviour, speech, and movement.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Discovery of a mechanism for bacterial adaptation to certain antibiotics
Discovery of a mechanism for bacterial adaptation to certain antibiotics
Researchers from the Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla- IBiS, the University of Seville and the Virgen Macarena University Hospital publish a study that explores in depth the mechanisms that block the development of resistance in bacteria.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
’ChatGPT’ for biomedical simulations
The artificial intelligence (AI) model GPT-4, known from its application in ChatGPT, shows impressive capabilities in biomedical research and can be used in many ways for simulations. A simulator developed at MedUni Vienna and based on GPT-4 shows increased accuracy in classifying the importance of genes in cancer cells, as well as in the prognosis of cancer patients.

Life Sciences - Environment - 11.07.2024
Even fish society shows social control and nepotism
Even fish society shows social control and nepotism
Cichlids living in groups tend to turn a blind eye to their relatives shirking their duty to help as desired in various tasks in the group, such as caring for the brood. Animals that are not related to them don't seem to be offered the same lenient treatment. Researchers at the University of Bern have now been able to prove the existence of this form of "nepotism" in fish for the first time in experiments.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Biological Science Helps Fuel the Future of Electric Air Travel
When it comes to figuring out why electric aircraft batteries lose power over time, one typically wouldn't think to turn to a decades-old approach biologists use to study the structure and function of components in living organisms. However, it turns out that omics, a field that helped scientists unravel the secrets of the human genome, could also soon play a key role in making carbon-free air travel a reality.

Life Sciences - Environment - 11.07.2024
A motor for cell-free metabolism
A motor for cell-free metabolism
Researchers have developed the first cell-free system in which genetic information and metabolism work together Metabolic processes outside living cells only continue as long as they are supplied with building blocks from the outside. A team of Max Planck researchers led by Tobias Erb has now developed the first in vitro system inspired by nature that couples genetics and metabolism and can drive itself.

Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Muscle machine: How water controls the speed of muscle contraction
The flow of water within a muscle fiber may dictate how quickly muscle can contract, according to a University of Michigan study. Nearly all'animals use muscle to move, and it's been known for a long time that muscle, like all'other cells, is composed of about 70% water. But researchers don't know what sets the range and upper limits of muscle performance.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.07.2024
Discovery of a new defence mechanism in bacteria
Discovery of a new defence mechanism in bacteria
When confronted with an antibiotic, toxic substance, or other source of considerable stress, bacteria are able to activate a defence mechanism using cell-to-cell communication to 'warn' unaffected bacteria, which can then anticipate, shield themselves and spread the warning signal. This mechanism 1 has just been described for the first time by a team of scientists 2 from CNRS and Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.07.2024
Why aortic aneurysms occur at the vascular arch or in the abdominal section
Why aortic aneurysms occur at the vascular arch or in the abdominal section
The usual sites where vascular bulges form are predestined for this from the outset, even in healthy people. This is shown by a study conducted by the Bochum and Bonn medical departments. If a vascular aneurysm bursts in the aorta, it poses an acute danger to life. These so-called aortic aneurysms typically form in the same places on the large blood vessel: either on the upper arch or in the abdominal cavity.

Environment - Life Sciences - 10.07.2024
Wolves’ return has had only small impact on deer populations in NE Washington
Humans drove wolves to extinction in Washington state around the 1930s. Thanks to conservation efforts, by about 80 years later, wolves had returned - crossing first from the Canadian border into Washington around 2008 and later entering the state from Idaho. Since then, wolf numbers in Washington have been steadily growing, raising questions about what the return of this large predator species means for ecosystems and people alike.

Life Sciences - 10.07.2024
From bands to spots, the secrets of the leopard gecko's skin
From bands to spots, the secrets of the leopard gecko’s skin
Two biologists from UNIGE determined how bands and then spots are formed on the skin of the leopard gecko. While the patterns and colours of lizards' skin are fascinating, the mechanisms behind them are largely unknown. A team from the University of Geneva studied the leopard gecko, a popular lizard, to understand how the bands on the skin of juveniles turn into spots when they reach adulthood.

Health - Life Sciences - 10.07.2024
A valve made from human collagen opens up new avenues for the treatment of a paediatric heart disease
MRI image showing the reconstructed pulmonary valve (circled in red) that is closing perfectly 7 days after implantation. Fabien Kawecki/Inserm Researchers from Inserm have developed a pulmonary valve using human collagen. A device that could ultimately be a game-changer in the treatment of paediatric heart diseases, such as tetralogy of Fallot.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.07.2024
Exercise brain boost can last for years
Exercise brain boost can last for years
A longitudinal study by University of Queensland researchers has found high-intensity interval exercise improves brain function in older adults for up to 5 years. Emeritus Professor Perry Bartlett Dr Daniel Blackmore from UQ's Queensland Brain Institute led the study in which volunteers did physical exercise and had brain scans.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 10.07.2024
Ancient DNA study sheds new light on dingo ancestry
Ancient DNA study sheds new light on dingo ancestry
Analysis of ancient dingo DNA shows the genetic diversity of modern-day dingo populations was in place long before domestic dogs were introduced into Australia by European colonists, according to a new study involving researchers from The Australian National University (ANU). The study, co-led by Queensland University of Technology (QUT) and the University of Adelaide, suggest there is less interbreeding between dingoes and modern dogs than previously thought, with the new study confirming modern-day dingoes retain much of their ancestral genetic diversity.