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Life Sciences - Environment - 12.07.2021
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Human environmental genome recovered in the absence of skeletal remains
Ancient sediments from caves have already proven to preserve DNA for thousands of years. The amount of recovered sequences from environmental sediments, however, is generally low, which difficults the analyses to be performed with these sequences. A study led by Ron Pinhasi and Pere Gelabert of the University of Vienna and published in Current Biology successfully retrieved three mammalian environmental genomes from a single soil sample of 25,000 years bp obtained from the cave of Satsurblia in the Caucasus (Georgia).

Health - Life Sciences - 12.07.2021
Researchers define the molecular mechanism that drives the initial step of tumour metastasis
An international research team has defined the molecular mechanism that drives the initial step of tumour metastasis -intravasationwhen tumour cells enter vascular and/or lymphatic vessels. Understanding tumour cell intravasation is the key to future therapeutic developments to block the spread of tumour cells from their primary site, before the onset of metastasis.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.07.2021
An 'astounding' find reveals a rare cause of epilepsy
An ’astounding’ find reveals a rare cause of epilepsy
Researchers at The University of Queensland, working to gain a better understanding of how brain cells work, have discovered the underlying mechanism of a rare genetic mutation that can cause epilepsy. Dr Victor Anggono from UQ's Queensland Brain Institute said his team made the ground-breaking findings while researching nerve cell communications, which are an important process in normal brain function.

Life Sciences - Health - 09.07.2021
Machine-learning improves the prediction of stroke recovery
Machine-learning improves the prediction of stroke recovery
An international team of scientists led by EPFL has developed a system that combines information from the brain's connectome - the "wiring" between neurons - and machine learning to assess and predict the outcome of stroke victims. When blood flow to the brain is somehow reduced or restricted, a person can suffer what we know as a stroke (from "ischemic stroke" in medical jargon).

Health - Life Sciences - 09.07.2021
Wearable Tech Aids Freedivers, Cardiac Patients
Carnegie Mellon University With dives lasting more than four minutes and reaching depths of more than 100 meters on a single-breath hold, freedivers test the limits of human endurance. Carnegie Mellon researchers are part of an international team working on wearable biomedical technology that will enhance freediver safety, as well as provide fresh treatment insights for cardiac patients.

Environment - Life Sciences - 08.07.2021
Scientists create genetic library for mega-ecosystem in Pacific Ocean
The California Current extends nearly 2,000 miles from Canada's Vancouver Island to the middle of the Baja Peninsula in Mexico. It brings cold water from the North Pacific Ocean to the west coast of North America and is home to numerous and abundant species because of the upwelling of deep nutrient-rich waters.

Environment - Life Sciences - 08.07.2021
Climate changed the size of our bodies and, to some extent, our brains
The average body size of humans has fluctuated significantly over the last million years and is strongly linked to temperature. Colder, harsher climates drove the evolution of larger body sizes, while warmer climates led to smaller bodies. Brain size also changed dramatically but did not evolve in tandem with body size.

Health - Life Sciences - 08.07.2021
A 'molecular switch' turns on the unfavorable evolution of prostate tumors
A ’molecular switch’ turns on the unfavorable evolution of prostate tumors
Researchers from the Prostate Cancer Biology laboratory, directed by Giuseppina Carbone, M.D., at the Institute of Oncology Research (IOR, affiliated to USI) in Bellinzona, have discovered an unexpected mechanism that drives the largest group of prostate tumors' evolution, the ERG fusion-positive prostate cancers.

Life Sciences - Health - 08.07.2021
Brain research uncovers 'perfect storm' linked to neurodegenerative disease
Brain research uncovers ’perfect storm’ linked to neurodegenerative disease
A 'perfect storm' of genetic mutations, toxic proteins and a defect in natural cell recycling has been uncovered in University of Queensland research that could lead to treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Researchers have found brain cells are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of the triple threat, and two genes - PINK-1 and PDR-1 - are likely to contribute significantly to that vulnerability.

Environment - Life Sciences - 08.07.2021
Peatland fires reduce future methane production in peat soils
Climatic changes are increasingly giving rise to major fires on peatlands in the northern hemisphere, which release massive quantities of carbon dioxide. However, the biomass of the peatland is not entirely consumed by fire, some turns to charcoal in the absence of air. Now, Dr. Tianran Sun and Professor Lars Angenent from Environmental Biotechnology at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with colleagues at Cornell University in the USA have discovered that the carbonized biomass reduces production of the methane gases naturally occurring in the peat soil.

Life Sciences - Campus - 08.07.2021
Cell structure previously associated with disease actually improves brain function
Researchers at McGill University have shown that a brain cell structure previously thought to be pathological in fact enhances cells' ability to transmit information and correlates with better learning on certain tasks. In a study published , the team investigated swellings that occur in the axons of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.07.2021
MHH fills important gap in lung research
MHH fills important gap in lung research
For the first time, a team of scientists clearly demonstrates the existence of lipofibroblasts in human luectron microscope In medical research, animal models are used to clarify the development of diseases and to develop suitable therapies. In order to be able to transfer the results to humans, however, it must be ensured that the cell types and molecular signalling pathways studied in detail actually occur in our bodies.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.07.2021
Rare genetic variants confer largest increase in type 2 diabetes risk seen to date
Rare genetic variants confer largest increase in type 2 diabetes risk seen to date
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have identified rare genetic variants - carried by one in 3,000 people - that have a larger impact on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes than any previously identified genetic effect. For complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes, many variants play a role [in disease risk], but often only increasing our risk by a tiny amount.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.07.2021
Researchers identify an early neuronal dysfunction in Parkinson's that could help early diagnosis
Researchers identify an early neuronal dysfunction in Parkinson’s that could help early diagnosis
Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, a process involving motor manifestations such as tremors, rigidity, slow movements, and postural instability. Although in many cases the cause of the disease is still unknown, mutations in the LRRK2 gene are responsible for 5% of the cases.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 07.07.2021
A man in the moon: why our brains see human faces everywhere
A man in the moon: why our brains see human faces everywhere
Our brain is hardwired to see images of faces in everyday items. Neuroscientist Professor David Alais and colleagues have now discovered why - and why it is we can give those faces an emotional value. It's so commonplace we barely give it a second thought, but human brains seem hardwired to see human faces where there are none - in objects as varied as the moon, toys, plastic bottles, tree trunks and vacuum cleaners.

Life Sciences - Health - 07.07.2021
Researchers identify missing 'switch' that controls essential genes
Researchers identify missing ’switch’ that controls essential genes
Proteins known as transcription factors act as switches that regulate the expression of nearby genes, but the identity of some of these genetic levers has so far remained mysterious. Now, researchers from the Schübeler group have pinpointed a new switch that regulates essential genes in the mouse and the human genome.

Health - Life Sciences - 07.07.2021
Rice, Rutgers developing inhalable COVID-19 vaccine spray
Rice, Rutgers developing inhalable COVID-19 vaccine spray
New strategies would be easier to manufacture, don't require cold storage Scientists at Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) are part of a study to develop an inhalable COVID-19 vaccine. The project led by Rutgers University and CTBP scientists at Rice and Northeastern University has produced two vaccine strategies.

Life Sciences - 06.07.2021
Inherited memories of a chromosomal site
Inherited memories of a chromosomal site
Two UNIGE teams have discovered that the location of a specific chromosomal site is transmitted between two generations, even if the part of the protein that initially defines that site is absent in the offspring. Most biological traits are inherited through genes, but there are exceptions to this rule.

Health - Life Sciences - 06.07.2021
Early detection of dementia
Early detection of dementia
Alzheimer's and other dementias are among the most widespread diseases today. Diagnosis is complex and can often only be established with certainty late in the course of the disease. A team of researchers, together with clinical partners, is now developing a new diagnostic tool that can detect the first signs of neurodegenerative changes using a sensor belt.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.07.2021
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Bacterial survival kit to endure in soil
Soil bacteria have amazing strategies to attain energy in order to withstand stressful times Soils are one of the most diverse habitats on the planet. There are more than thousand microbial species per gram that significantly influence numerous environmental processes. However, the majority of these organisms are believed to be in a state of 'dormancy' due to environmental stress, such as nutrient-poor conditions.