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Physics - Materials Science - 27.05.2021
It takes some heat to form ice
It takes some heat to form ice
Researchers from TU Graz in Austria and the Universities of Cambridge and Surrey succeeded to track down the first step in ice formation at a surface, revealing that additional energy is needed for water before ice can start to form. Picture material for download at the end of the message Water freezes and turns to ice when brought in contact with a cold surface - a well-known fact.

Physics - Chemistry - 27.05.2021
Shiny mega-crystals that build themselves
Shiny mega-crystals that build themselves
An international team led by Empa and ETH Zurich researchers is playing with shape-engineered nanoscale building blocks that are up to 100-times larger than atoms and ions. And although these nano "Lego bricks" interact with each other with forces vastly different and much weaker than those holding atoms and ions together, they form crystals all by themselves, the structures of which resemble the ones of natural minerals.

Life Sciences - Physics - 27.05.2021
Biologists construct a 'periodic table' for cell nuclei
Biologists construct a ’periodic table’ for cell nuclei
Project to classify nuclei across the tree of life discovers how to transmute them from one type into another One hundred fifty years ago, Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table , a system for classifying atoms based on the properties of their nuclei. This week, a team of biologists studying the tree of life has unveiled a new classification system for cell nuclei, and discovered a method for transmuting one type of cell nucleus into another.

Physics - Materials Science - 26.05.2021
Zero-carbon energy from sea water a step closer
Researchers at McGill University have demonstrated a technique that could enable the production of robust, high-performance membranes to harness an abundant source of renewable energy. Blue energy, also known as osmotic energy, capitalizes on the energy naturally released when two solutions of different salinities mix - conditions that occur in countless locations around the world where fresh and salt water meet.

Physics - Materials Science - 26.05.2021
Study of promising photovoltaic material leads to discovery of a new state of matter
Researchers at McGill University have gained new insight into the workings of perovskites, a semiconductor material that shows great promise for making high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells and a range of other optical and electronic devices. Perovskites have drawn attention over the past decade because of their ability to act as semiconductors even when there are defects in the material's crystal structure.

Physics - Electroengineering - 25.05.2021
'Bite' defects in bottom-up graphene nanoribbons
’Bite’ defects in bottom-up graphene nanoribbons
Scientists at Empa and EPFL have identified a new type of defect as the most common source of disorder in on-surface synthesized graphene nanoribbons, a novel class of carbon-based materials that may prove extremely useful in next-generation electronic devices. The researchers identified the atomic structure of these so-called "bite" defects and investigated their effect on quantum electronic transport.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 25.05.2021
Milky Way no freak accident, astronomers say
Milky Way no freak accident, astronomers say
Detailed study by University of Sydney astronomers of a galaxy 320 million light years away reveals striking similarities to our own home. The first detailed cross-section of a galaxy broadly similar to the Milky Way, published today , reveals that our galaxy evolved gradually, instead of being the result of a violent mash-up.

Physics - Campus - 25.05.2021
Odd angles make for strong spin-spin coupling
Odd angles make for strong spin-spin coupling
Rice physicists' RAMBO reveals magnetic phenomenon useful for quantum simulation and sensing Sometimes things are a little out of whack, and it turns out to be exactly what you need. That was the case when orthoferrite crystals turned up at a Rice University laboratory slightly misaligned. Those crystals inadvertently became the basis of a discovery that should resonate with researchers studying spintronics -based quantum technology.

Chemistry - Physics - 24.05.2021
Complex molecules could hold the secret to identifying alien life
A new system capable of identifying complex molecular signatures could aid in the search for alien life in the universe and could even lead to the creation of new forms of life in the laboratory, scientists say. University of Glasgow researchers have developed a new method called Assembly Theory which can be used to quantify how assembled or complex a molecule is in the laboratory using techniques like mass spectrometry.

Physics - Life Sciences - 21.05.2021
Making the gray cells happy
Making the gray cells happy
Neutrons show a connection between lithium concentration and depression Depressive disorders are among the most frequent illnesses worldwide. The causes are complex and to date only partially understood. The trace element lithium appears to play a role. Using neutrons of the research neutron source at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a research team has now proved that the distribution of lithium in the brains of depressive people is different from the distribution found in healthy humans.

Physics - Chemistry - 20.05.2021
The first nuclear reactor, explained
In 1942, the Manhattan Project needed to create a chain reaction-a crucial step towards proving that it would be possible to make an atomic bomb. They achieved this first sustained chain reaction , the first created by humans, on Dec. 2, 1942, in a squash court at the University of Chicago. Nicknamed "Chicago Pile-1," the world's first nuclear reactor kicked off the Atomic Age and has a complicated legacy, including the rise of both nuclear energy and nuclear weapons.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 20.05.2021
An inconstant Hubble constant? U-M research suggests fix to cosmological cornerstone
An inconstant Hubble constant? U-M research suggests fix to cosmological cornerstone
More than 90 years ago, astronomer Edwin Hubble observed the first hint of the rate at which the universe expands, called the Hubble constant. Almost immediately, astronomers began arguing about the actual value of this constant, and over time, realized that there was a discrepancy in this number between early universe observations and late universe observations.

Physics - Materials Science - 19.05.2021
Making the invisible visible
Making the invisible visible
International research team develops new method for studying atomic structures in material surfaces Researchers from Friedrich Schiller University Jena, the University of California Berkeley and the Institut Polytechnique de Paris use intense laser light in the extreme ultraviolet spectrum to generate a non-linear optical process on a laboratory scale - a process which until now has only been possible in a large-scale research facility.

Materials Science - Physics - 19.05.2021
New Material Could Harvest Water All Day Long
New Material Could Harvest Water All Day Long
Micro-engineered, bioinspired design allows the material to collect moisture from cool fog as well as generating and collecting steam under sun Tiny structures inspired by the shape of cactus spines allow a newly created material to gather drinkable water from the air both day and night, combining two water-harvesting technologies into one.

Physics - Health - 18.05.2021
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
Crystalline supermirrors for trace gas detection in environmental science and medicine
In an international cooperation with partners from industry and research, physicists from the University of Vienna, together with Thorlabs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the University of Kansas, have now succeeded for the first time in demonstrating high-performance laser mirrors in the sensing-relevant mid-infrared wavelength range that absorb less than ten out of a million photons.

Health - Physics - 18.05.2021
How X-Rays Could Make Reliable, Rapid COVID-19 Tests a Reality
How X-Rays Could Make Reliable, Rapid COVID-19 Tests a Reality
An imaging technique pioneered by Berkeley Lab is helping reveal the best antibodies for COVID-19 detection Vaccines are turning the tide in the pandemic, but the risk of infection is still present in some situations. If you want to visit a friend, get on a plane, or go see a movie, there is no highly accurate, instant test that can tell you right then and there whether or not you have a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 17.05.2021
Successful start of DESI Instrument to reveal dark energy mysteries
Successful start of DESI Instrument to reveal dark energy mysteries
Today is the official beginning of a 5-year research to map the universe and reveal the mysteries of the dark energy using the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument ( DESI ). Based in the Kitt Peak National Observatory (Arizona, United States), this instrument will take and study the light of tens of millions of galaxies and other distant objects of the Universe.

Physics - Chemistry - 17.05.2021
Diamonds engage both optical microscopy and MRI for better imaging
The microdiamonds used as biological tracers are about 200 microns across, less than one-hundredth of an inch. They fluoresce red but can also be hyperpolarized, allowing them to be detected both optically - by fluorescence microscopy - and by radio-frequency NMR imaging, boosting the power of both techniques.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 14.05.2021
Scientists hunt for evidence of 'lensed' gravitational waves
Scientists hunt for evidence of ’lensed’ gravitational waves
Scientists searching for evidence of lensed gravitational waves have published new research outlining the most recent findings on their quest for the first detection of these elusive signals. Gravitational lensing has been predicted by Einstein himself, and observed by scientists for decades: light emitted by distant objects in the Universe is bent by the gravitational pull of very massive galaxies, as they cross the line-of-sight of the light source.

Earth Sciences - Physics - 14.05.2021
Fibre-optics help create most detailed picture of Greenland Ice Sheet
Fibre-optics help create most detailed picture of Greenland Ice Sheet
Scientists have used a fibre-optic sensor passed deep into a borehole to obtain the most detailed measurements of ice properties ever taken on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Their findings will be used to make more accurate models of the future movement of the world’s second-largest ice sheet, as the effects of climate change continue to accelerate.
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