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Palaeontology - Chemistry - 10.07.2020
Biosignatures may reveal a wealth of new data locked inside old fossils
Biosignatures may reveal a wealth of new data locked inside old fossils
Step aside, skeletons - a new world of biochemical "signatures" found in all kinds of ancient fossils is revealing itself to paleontologists, providing a new avenue for insights into major evolutionary questions. In a new study published Advances , Yale researchers outline a novel approach to finding biological signals long thought to be lost in the process of fossilization.

Chemistry - 10.07.2020
Spinning chemicals for faster reactions
Cardiff University scientists have devised a new way of making reactions up to 70 times faster by using state-of-the-art equipment to spin chemicals around. They found that efficient mixing within a chemical reaction could be achieved by spinning chemicals and catalysts around in a small tube, causing the reactions to happen much quicker.

Environment - Chemistry - 09.07.2020
Finds less impact from wildfire smoke on climate
Observations suggest smaller warming effects of brown carbon than published model assessments In a unique megafire study, a Los Alamos National Laboratory-led research team studied the properties of smoke from Arizona's massive Woodbury Fire last summer using a powerful set of observing techniques. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 9, 2020-New research revealed that tiny, sunlight-absorbing particles in wildfire smoke may have less impact on climate than widely hypothesized because reactions as the plume mixes with clean air reduce its absorbing power and climate-warming effect.

Physics - Chemistry - 08.07.2020
Rock 'n' Control
Rock ’n’ Control
Göttingen Physicists use oscillations of atoms to control a phase transition The goal of -Femtochemistry- is to film and control chemical reactions with short flashes of light. Using consecutive laser pulses, atomic bonds can be excited precisely and broken as desired. So far, this has been demonstrated for selected molecules.

Chemistry - Physics - 08.07.2020
Graphene: It is all about the toppings
Graphene: It is all about the toppings
To fully exploit the potential of the "wonder material" graphene, it has to be combined with other materials. A new study investigates what is important for this. Graphene consists of a single layer of carbon atoms. Exceptional electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties have made graphene one of the most studied materials at the moment.

Physics - Chemistry - 08.07.2020
Porous nitrogen-doped graphene ribbons for future electronics
Porous nitrogen-doped graphene ribbons for future electronics
A team of physicists and chemists has produced the first porous graphene ribbons in which specific carbon atoms in the crystal lattice are replaced with nitrogen atoms. These ribbons have semiconducting properties that make them attractive for applications in electronics and quantum computing, as reported by researchers from the Universities of Basel, Bern, Lancaster and Warwick in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 07.07.2020
Enzymes as double agents: new mechanism discovered in protein modification
Enzymes as double agents: new mechanism discovered in protein modification
Proteins are the workers in a cell and, as the “basic element of life”, are responsible for the most widely varying metabolic processes. In plants, for example, they take on an important function in photosynthesis. In order to be able to work purposefully, proteins change their chemical form after they have been produced in a cell - for example, through protein acetylation, when an acetyl group is transferred to the protein.

Pharmacology - Chemistry - 07.07.2020
Towards improved wound healing - Chemical synthesis of a trefoil factor peptide
Towards improved wound healing - Chemical synthesis of a trefoil factor peptide
Milestone for therapeutic development of peptides against gastrointestinal disorders The fascinating family of trefoil factor peptides brings hope to both research and industry to improve the treatment of chronic disorders such as Crohn's disease. For the first time, a team led by ERC awardee Markus Muttenthaler from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in the synthesis and folding of the peptide TFF1, a key player in mucosal protection and repair.

Chemistry - 06.07.2020
Cosmic Waves
Cosmic Waves
The molecular gas in galaxies is organised into a hierarchy of structures. It moves along filament-like orbits to centres of gas and dust where it is compressed into stars and planets. To better understand this, an international team of astronomers led by Dr Jonathan Henshaw from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and Dr Diederik Kruijssen from the Center for Astronomy at Heidelberg University examined gas movements on various size scales.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 06.07.2020
How do bacteria build up natural products?
How do bacteria build up natural products?
X-ray structure analysis gives detailed insights into molecular factory The active agents of many drugs are natural products, so called because often only microorganisms are able to produce the complex structures. Similar to the production line in a factory, large enzyme complexes put these active agent molecules together.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 06.07.2020
Structural insights into Fe-S protein biogenesis
Structural insights into Fe-S protein biogenesis
The cytosolic iron sulfur assembly (CIA) pathway is required for the insertion of Fe-S clusters into proteins, including many DNA replication and repair factors. Despite its essential cellular function, this pathway remains enigmatic. A new integrative structural and biochemical study from the Thomä group now provides detailed insights into the mechanisms of Fe-S protein biogenesis.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.07.2020
Flashes bright when squeezed tight: how single-celled organisms light up the oceans
Flashes bright when squeezed tight: how single-celled organisms light up the oceans
Research explains how a unicellular marine organism generates light as a response to mechanical stimulation, lighting up breaking waves at night. Our findings show how elegant decision-making can be on a single-cell level Maziyar Jalaal Every few years, a bloom of microscopic organisms called dinoflagellates transforms the coasts around the world by endowing breaking waves with an eerie blue glow.

Chemistry - 03.07.2020
Peering under galactic dust, study reveals radiation at center of Milky Way
Thanks to 20 years of homegrown galactic data, astronomers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, UW-Whitewater and Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University have finally figured out just how much energy permeates the center of the Milky Way. The researchers say it could one day help astronomers track down where all that energy comes from.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 02.07.2020
New insights into lithium metal technology
New insights into lithium metal technology
It is one of the key technologies for high-performance batteries of the future: the lithium metal battery (LMB). Designed for instance as solid-state battery with polymer electrolyte, it promises a significantly higher energy density than the currently common lithium-ion battery (LIB). However, it is not yet fully developed for the final commercial breakthrough and is therefore currently used by only a few pilot projects.

Chemistry - Pharmacology - 01.07.2020
A new ultrafast insulin
A new ultrafast insulin
Stanford researchers tested a new insulin drug in diabetic pigs and found that it was twice as fast-acting as traditional insulin. Researchers at Stanford University are developing a new insulin formulation that begins to take effect almost immediately upon injection, potentially working four times as fast as current commercial fast-acting insulin formulations.

Chemistry - 30.06.2020
Chanterelle mushrooms as a taste enhancer
Chanterelle mushrooms as a taste enhancer
New method for quality control of chanterelle mushrooms Chanterelles give savoury dishes a rich body and a unique complex flavour. Experts refer to this as the kokumi effect. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Leibniz-Institute for Food Systems Biology recently developed the first method to clearly quantify chanterelle-specific key substances that contribute to this effect.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 29.06.2020
Producing a gaseous messenger molecule inside the body, on demand
Producing a gaseous messenger molecule inside the body, on demand
Method could shed light on nitric oxide's role in the neural, circulatory, and immune systems. Nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule in the body, with a role in building nervous system connections that contribute to learning and memory. It also functions as a messenger in the cardiovascular and immune systems.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 23.06.2020
Growing polymers with different lengths
Growing polymers with different lengths
ETH researchers have developed a new method for producing polymers with different lengths. This paves the way for new classes of polymer materials to be used in previously inconceivable applications. It is hard to imagine everyday life without materials made of synthetic polymers. Clothes, car parts, computers or packaging - they all consist of polymer materials.

Materials Science - Chemistry - 22.06.2020
Super-strong surgical tape detaches on demand
Super-strong surgical tape detaches on demand
Removable adhesive could make it easier for surgeons to close up internal wounds. Last year, MIT engineers developed a  double-sided adhesive  that could quickly and firmly stick to wet surfaces such as biological tissues. They showed that the tape could be used to seal up rips and tears in lungs and intestines within seconds, or to affix implants and other medical devices to the surfaces of organs such as the heart.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 22.06.2020
New electrolyte design may lead to better batteries for electric vehicles
New electrolyte design may lead to better batteries for electric vehicles
Stanford researchers have designed a new electrolyte for lithium metal batteries that could increase the driving range of electric cars. A new lithium-based electrolyte invented by Stanford University scientists could pave the way for the next generation of battery-powered electric vehicles. In a study published June 22 in Nature Energy , Stanford researchers demonstrate how their novel electrolyte design boosts the performance of lithium metal batteries, a promising technology for powering electric vehicles, laptops and other devices.
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