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Environment - Life Sciences - 22.01.2020
Fungal diversity and the future of forests
Stanford researchers predict that climate change will reduce the diversity of symbiotic fungi that help trees grow. If you indulge in truffles, or porcini and chanterelle mushrooms, you have enjoyed a product of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Forming symbiotic relationships with plants - including pine, birch, oak and willow tree species - these fungi have existed for millions of years, their sprawling filaments supporting ecosystems throughout their reach.

Environment - Life Sciences - 22.01.2020
Urine fertilizer: ’Aging’ effectively protects against transfer of antibiotic resistance
Recycled and aged human urine can be used as a fertilizer with low risks of transferring antibiotic resistant DNA to the environment, according to new research from the University of Michigan. It's a key finding in efforts to identify more sustainable alternatives to widely used fertilizers that contribute to water pollution.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 22.01.2020
Digital Fertilization
Digital Fertilization
Algorithms and sensors for sustainable and future-proof agriculture European Union Directives stipulate a reduction in nitrate levels in groundwater. Digital techniques developed by researchers at the TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan under the aegis of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have proved useful in achieving this goal.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 21.01.2020
Earth's oldest known impact might have ended 'snowball Earth' ice age
Earth’s oldest known impact might have ended ’snowball Earth’ ice age
New evidence has confirmed Australia's Yarrabubba crater as the world's oldest preserved impact structure - but did it thaw Earth and end an ice age? The crater is regarded as one of Earth's oldest, but until now has lacked a precise age. Now, a new study has used geological dating to pin the impact to 2.229 billion years ago - a time that coincided with Earth's recovery from an ice age known as ‘ Snowball Earth ', where most of Earth's surface was covered with ice sheets between two and five kilometres thick.

Environment - Health - 21.01.2020
Festival fireworks celebrations’ health impact on vulnerable people - study
Fireworks associated with festival celebrations such as Australia Day, China's Lunar New Year and Fourth of July, in the USA, may have a significant impact on the health of vulnerable people - a new study reveals. Using fireworks during these celebrations generates anthropogenic source of air pollutants with significant impacts on local air quality, creating up to eight times the average of particulate matter (PM) concentration in the environment during and immediately after the event.

Social Sciences - Environment - 21.01.2020
New housing design in England overwhelmingly ’mediocre’ or ’poor’
The design of new housing developments in England is overwhelmingly 'mediocre' or 'poor', with less-affluent communities the worst affected, according to a national audit conducted by UCL for CPRE, the countryside charity, and the Place Alliance. A housing design audit for England reveals that 75% of new housing development should not have gone ahead due to 'mediocre' or 'poor' design.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.01.2020
Small predators lose out from human land use
Predators, especially small invertebrates like spiders and ladybirds, are the most likely to be lost when natural habitats are converted to agricultural land or towns and cities, finds a new UCL-led study. The first of its kind, global study on the impacts of human land use on different groups of animals is published in the British Ecological Society journal Functional Ecology .

Environment - 21.01.2020
Emissions of potent greenhouse gas have grown, contradicting reports of huge reductions
Over the last two decades, scientists have been keeping a close eye on the atmospheric concentration of a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) gas, known as HFC-23. This gas has very few industrial applications. However, levels have been soaring because it is vented to the atmosphere during the production of another chemical widely used in cooling systems in developing countries.

Environment - 21.01.2020
"Green economy": an ambiguous concept that is on the way out
Concerns about climate change have given rise to a whole series of concepts that are widely used despite their lack of a concrete definition. EPFL researchers have taken a closer look at the "green economy" concept in particular to clarify exactly what it means. Today's consumers want a cleaner, greener society.

Environment - 21.01.2020
Arctic sea ice can’t ’bounce back’
Arctic sea ice cannot “quickly bounce back” once climate change causes it to melt, new research suggests. A team including scientists from Cardiff University used the shells of quahog clams, which can live for hundreds of years, and climate models to discover how Arctic sea ice has changed over the last 1,000 years.

Environment - 20.01.2020
Confirms the Importance of Tiger Population in Thailand Forest Complex
A new scientific survey has reinforced the importance of one of the world's only remaining breeding populations of Indochinese tigers and provided evidence of tiger cubs in eastern Thailand's Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex. The study by researchers from the Department of Zoology's WildCRU , published iná Biological Conservation , discusses findings first announced in 2017 that the Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex supports a critically important breeding population of tigers.

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 20.01.2020
The salt of the comet
The salt of the comet
Under the leadership of astrophysicist Kathrin Altwegg, Bernese researchers have found an explanation for why very little nitrogen could previously be accounted for in the nebulous covering of comets: the building block for life predominantly occurs in the form of ammonium salts, the occurrence of which could not previously be measured.

Environment - 20.01.2020
Brazilian wildfire pollution worsens air quality in distant cities - study
Wildfires in south eastern Brazil produce airborne pollution that worsens air quality in major cities such as Sao Paulo - cancelling out efforts to improve the urban environment and posing health risks to citizens, according to a new study. The planet is frequently affected by smoke from fires caused by humans and natural processes.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 20.01.2020
Local water availability is permanently reduced after planting forests
Local water availability is permanently reduced after planting forests
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Life Sciences - Environment - 16.01.2020
Scientists uncover how an explosion of new genes explain the origin of land plants
Scientists have made a significant discovery about the genetic origins of how plants evolved from living in water to land 470 million years ago. The new study, led by scientists from the universities of Bristol and Essex and published today [16 January] in Current Biology , challenge the established view of the origin of plants on land, and reveal that compared to the origin of animals, plants are better at inventing new genes during periods of evolution.

Environment - Social Sciences - 16.01.2020
Small change for climate change: Why research funding to save the world needs to be drastically stepped up
Small change for climate change: Why research funding to save the world needs to be drastically stepped up
Researchers from the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs and the University of Sussex analysed USD 1.3 trillion of research funding around the world. Between 1990 and 2018, less than 4.59% of the funding was spent on climate-related research. Only 0.12% of the research funding was spent on a critical issue: how to change societies to mitigate climate change.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 16.01.2020
Predicting hydraulic fracture propagation more accurately
Predicting hydraulic fracture propagation more accurately
Researchers at EPFL have developed a new model to calculate hydraulic fracture propagation. Acclaimed for its accuracy by experts, the model better predicts fracture geometry and the energy cost of hydraulic fracturing - a widely used technique in areas such as CO2 storage, hydrocarbon extraction, dams and volcano hazard monitoring.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 16.01.2020
Asteroid impact, not volcanic eruptions, killed the dinosaurs
Volcanic activity did not play a direct role in the mass extinction event that killed the dinosaurs and about 75 per cent of Earth's species 66 million years ago, according to a team involving UCL and University of Southampton researchers.

Life Sciences - Environment - 16.01.2020
Glimpse into ancient hunting strategies of dragonflies and damselflies
Dragonflies and damselflies are animals that may appear gentle, but are - in fact - ancient hunters. The closely related insects shared an ancestor over 250 million years ago - long before dinosaurs - and provide a glimpse into how an ancient neural system controlled precise and swift aerial assaults.

Environment - 15.01.2020
Irrigation alleviates hot extremes
Irrigation alleviates hot extremes
Researchers from ETH Zurich and other universities found evidence that expanding irrigation has dampened anthropogenic warming during hot days, with particularly strong effects over South Asia. Large-scale irrigation is one of the land management practices with the largest effect on climate conditions - and especially hot extremes - in various regions across the globe.
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