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Physics - 02.12.2020
A French Team Has Improved the Measurement of a Fundamental Physical Constant
A French Team Has Improved the Measurement of a Fundamental Physical Constant
The validation and application of theories in physics require the measurement of universal values known as fundamental constants. A team of French researchers 1 has just conducted the most accurate measurement to date of the fine-structure constant, which characterizes the strength of interaction between light and charged elementary particles, such as electrons.

Physics - 02.12.2020
Learning about Quantum Vacuum by Studying Atoms
Learning about Quantum Vacuum by Studying Atoms
The Unruh-effect connects quantum theory and relativity. Until now, it could not be measured. A new idea could change this - in a completely different way than ever before. Is the vaccum really empty? Not necessarily. This is one of the strange results obtained by connecting quantum theory and the theory of relativity: The Unruh effect suggests that if you fly through a quantum vacuum with extreme acceleration, the vacuum no longer looks like a vacuum: rather, it looks like a warm bath full of particles.

Physics - 02.12.2020
A Machine Learning Solution for Designing Materials with Desired Optical Properties
A Machine Learning Solution for Designing Materials with Desired Optical Properties
Understanding how matter interacts with light - its optical properties - is critical in a myriad of energy and biomedical technologies, such as targeted drug delivery, quantum dots, fuel combustion, and cracking of biomass. But calculating these properties is computationally intensive, and the inverse problem - designing a structure with desired optical properties - is even harder.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 01.12.2020
Using ancient minerals from deep within Earth's crust to measure cosmic radiation
Using ancient minerals from deep within Earth’s crust to measure cosmic radiation
If you want to understand a part of Earth's galactic history-whether it passed near a supernova during its path around our galaxy, for example-you may be able to find the answer in the crystal structure of a rock, according to a University of Michigan study. The study outlines a method using paleo-detectors, an idea inspired by work from the 1960s, which used ancient minerals to search for new physics.

Physics - Materials Science - 30.11.2020
Magnetic vortices come full circle
Magnetic vortices come full circle
The first experimental observation of three-dimensional magnetic 'vortex rings' provides fundamental insight into intricate nanoscale structures inside bulk magnets and offers a fresh perspective for magnetic devices. One of the main puzzles was why these structures are so unexpectedly stable - like smoke rings, they are only supposed to exist as moving objects Claire Donnelly Magnets often harbour hidden beauty.

Physics - 30.11.2020
New analysis paves way for more sensitive quantum sensors
Quantum sensors can measure extremely small changes in an environment by taking advantage of quantum phenomena like entanglement, where entangled particles can affect each other, even when separated by great distances. Researchers ultimately hope to create and use these sensors to detect and diagnose disease, predict volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, or explore underground without digging.

Health - Physics - 27.11.2020
Over 20 million euros for two new research alliances
Over 20 million euros for two new research alliances
A great success for the University of Münster: the German Research Foundation (DFG) is funding two new Collaborative Research Centres (CRC). The two research alliances - entitled “inSight - Multiscale imaging of organ-specific inflammation? and “Intelligent matter: From responsive to adaptive nanosystems? - will together be receiving funding of more than 20 million euros.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 26.11.2020
Unknown Population of Stars Discovered
Unknown Population of Stars Discovered
Near the centre of the Milky Way there exists a heretofore unknown population of stars that exhibits characteristic properties. It was discovered by an international research team under the direction of Dr Manuel Arca Sedda of Collaborative Research Centre "The Milky Way System" (CRC 881) of Heidelberg University.

Physics - Astronomy / Space Science - 26.11.2020
Sun model completely confirmed for the first time
Sun model completely confirmed for the first time
Borexino detector succeeds in measuring the sun's CNO fusion cycle The Borexino Experiment research team has succeeded in detecting neutrinos from the sun's second fusion process, the Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen cycle (CNO cycle) for the first time. This means that all of the theoretical predictions on how energy is generated within the sun have now also been experimentally verified.

Health - Physics - 25.11.2020
Detecting bacteria with fluorescent nanosensors
Detecting bacteria with fluorescent nanosensors
Luminous carbon nanotubes detect pathogens - and are quick and easy to use. Researchers from Bochum, Göttingen, Duisburg and Cologne have developed a new method for detecting bacteria and infections. They use fluorescent nanosensors to track down pathogens faster and more easily than with established methods.

Health - Physics - 25.11.2020
Quantum nanodiamonds may help detect disease earlier
The quantum sensing abilities of nanodiamonds can be used to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostic tests, potentially allowing for earlier detection of diseases such as HIV, according to a study led by UCL researchers in the i-sense McKendry group. Paper-based lateral flow tests work the same way as a pregnancy test in that a strip of paper is soaked in a fluid sample and a change in colour - or fluorescent signal - indicates a positive result and the detection of virus proteins or DNA.

Physics - Materials Science - 25.11.2020
Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
Due to its antibacterial properties, nanosilver is used in a wide range of products from textiles to cosmetics. But nanosilver if present at high concentrations also disrupts the metabolism of algae that are essential for the aquatic food web dynamics and the production of terrestrial oxygen. Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood.

Physics - Chemistry - 24.11.2020
Stable Catalysts for New Energy
Stable Catalysts for New Energy
Crucial new technologies such as hydrogen production or carbon capture require new catalysts. Experiments show: It's not just the material that matters, but also its atomic surface structure. On the way to a CO2-neutral economy, we need to perfect a whole range of technologies - including the electrochemical extraction of hydrogen from water, fuel cells, or carbon capture.

Physics - Environment - 24.11.2020
Scientists Design New Framework for Clean Water
Scientists Design New Framework for Clean Water
Nature-inspired material designed by Berkeley Lab removes copper from wastewater with atomic precision W e rely on water to quench our thirst and to irrigate bountiful farmland. But what do you do when that once pristine water is polluted with wastewater from abandoned copper mines ? A promising solution relies on materials that capture heavy metal atoms, such as copper ions, from wastewater through a separation process called adsorption.

Physics - Materials Science - 23.11.2020
Moths strike out in evolutionary arms race with sophisticated wing design
Moths strike out in evolutionary arms race with sophisticated wing design
Ultra-thin, super-absorbent and extraordinarily designed to detract attention, the wings of moths could hold the key for developing technological solutions to survive in a noisy world. As revealed in a new study published today in PNAS [date tbc], researchers from the University of Bristol have discovered the precise construction of moths wings that have enabled the species to evade its most troublesome predator in a 65 million-year-old evolutionary arms race.

Physics - Electroengineering - 23.11.2020
Controlling fully integrated nanodiamonds
Controlling fully integrated nanodiamonds
Using modern nanotechnology, it is possible nowadays to produce structures which have a feature sizes of just a few nanometres. This world of the most minute particles - also known as quantum systems - makes possible a wide range of technological applications, in fields which include magnetic field sensing, information processing, secure communication or ultra-precise time keeping.

Physics - Materials Science - 23.11.2020
Ultrathin nanomesh sensor to measure sense of touch
Ultrathin nanomesh sensor to measure sense of touch
World's first fingertip-mounted sensor that maintains user's sensitivity Scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the University of Tokyo have developed an ultrathin pressure sensor that can be attached directly to the skin. It can measure how fingers interact with objects to produce valuable data for technological or medical applications.

Physics - Materials Science - 23.11.2020
Laser technology: New Trick for Infrared Laser Pulses
Laser technology: New Trick for Infrared Laser Pulses
Infrared light can be used to detect molecules - but it is hard to create strong, short laser pulses. A new solution was found at TU Wien. Ordinary solid-state lasers, as used in laser pointers, generate light in the visible range. For many applications, however, such as the detection of molecules, radiation in the mid-infrared range is needed.

Health - Physics - 23.11.2020
Magnetic brain waves to detect injury and disease
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have developed a new sensor to measure weak magnetic signals in the brain, which has the potential to increase understanding of connectivity in the brain, and detect signs of traumatic brain injury, dementia and schizophrenia. Magnetic signals in the brain are measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG).

Physics - 18.11.2020
’Search of a lifetime’ for supersymmetric particles at CERN
A team of researchers at the University of Chicago recently embarked on the search of a lifetime-or rather, a search for the lifetime of long-lived supersymmetric particles. Supersymmetry is a proposed theory to expand the Standard Model of particle physics. Akin to the periodic table of elements, the Standard Model is the best description we have for subatomic particles in nature and the forces acting on them.
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