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Earth Sciences

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Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.12.2022
Slime for the climate, delivered by brown algae
Slime for the climate, delivered by brown algae
Brown algae could remove up to 0.55 gigatons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere every year Brown algae take up large amounts of carbon dioxide from the air and release parts of the carbon contained therein back into the environment in mucous form. This mucus is hard to break down for other ocean inhabitants, thus the carbon is removed from the atmosphere for a long time, as researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen now show.

Earth Sciences - 20.12.2022
Using drones to monitor volcanoes: Researchers analyze volcanic gases with the help of ultra-lightweight sensor systems
Using drones to monitor volcanoes: Researchers analyze volcanic gases with the help of ultra-lightweight sensor systems
Composition of gases emitted by volcanoes can provide information on the possibility of imminent eruptions / Lightweight drones make investigation possible even in areas that are difficult to access The main gases released by volcanoes are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Analyzing these gases is one of the best ways of obtaining information on volcanic systems and the magmatic processes that are underway.

Paleontology - Earth Sciences - 20.12.2022
Giant arthropods dominated the seas 470 million years ago
An international team of scientists has made a groundbreaking discovery at a major new fossil site in Morocco: giant arthropods - relatives of modern animals such as shrimps, insects and spiders - would have dominated the seas 470 million years ago. The excavations were carried out in Taichoute, in Morocco, on a site formerly underwater but today desert.

Earth Sciences - 19.12.2022
Sedimentary rock 'chert' records cooling of the Earth over billions of years
Sedimentary rock ’chert’ records cooling of the Earth over billions of years
Research team analyses oxygen isotopes in 550 million-year-old samples Several billion years ago, the oceans were probably not as hot as often assumed, but were instead at much more moderate temperatures. This is the conclusion of a research team from the University of Göttingen and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Potsdam.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 17.12.2022
Climate change threatens Lake Tanganyika in East Africa
Research from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and UC Louvain warns of the effects of global warming on the fragile ecosystems of one of Africa's largest lakes. A rise of a few degrees in the water temperature can unbalance the ecosystem, with a major impact on local habitats as a result. "For our research, we combined a 3D hydrodynamic model of Lake Tanganyika made using SLIM-3D by Professor Eric Deleersnijder's research group at UC Louvain, with our own VUB expertise on climate modelling," says lead author Kevin Sterckx of VUB's Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 15.12.2022
Tracing the Surface Dynamics of Star Dunes with Laser Scanning
Tracing the Surface Dynamics of Star Dunes with Laser Scanning
Heidelberg geographers use new methods to capture large dune shapes in time and space and to explain their origin Star dunes are among the largest dune formations on Earth and - due to their changing shape over time - they can be important indicators for understanding the effects of climate change. Scientists from Heidelberg University's Institute of Geography have examined such a dune in the Erg Chebbi sandy desert in Morocco by means of state-of-the-art laser scanning.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 15.12.2022
Increasing forest cover in the Eifel region 11,000 years ago resulted in the local loss of megafauna
Increasing forest cover in the Eifel region 11,000 years ago resulted in the local loss of megafauna
Sediment cores obtained from Eifel maar sites provide insight into the presence of large Ice Age mammals in Central Europe over the past 60,000 years / Overkill hypothesis not confirmed Herds of megafauna, such as mammoth and bison, have roamed the prehistoric plains in what is today's Central Europe for several tens of thousands of years.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 14.12.2022
Key takeaways The quake lasted four hours and identified layering in the crust that could indicate a meteoroid impact. The 4.7 magnitude temblor happened in May 2022 and released five times more energy than any previously recorded quake on Mars. Mapping the seismic activity on Mars will help inform scientists where and how to build structures to ensure the safety of future human explorers.

Earth Sciences - 13.12.2022
Cause of puzzling tsunami near Sulawesi unraveled
When tectonic plates collide and thrust over each other and cause an earthquake, a tsunami can occur. That should not happen in an earthquake where the plates slide past each other. And yet that was exactly what happened on 28 September 2018 near Palu Bay (Sulawesi, Indonesia), mere minutes after an earthquake of that second category.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 12.12.2022
Signals from the ionosphere could improve tsunami forecasts
Research from the University of Washington shows that signals from the upper atmosphere could improve tsunami forecasting and, someday, help track ash plumes and other impacts after a volcanic eruption. A new study analyzed the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha-apai eruption in the South Pacific earlier this year.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 08.12.2022
Large mammals disappear from the Eifel region 11,000 years ago as a result of increasing forestation
Sediment cores from Eifel maars provide information on the development of ice-age large mammals in Central Europe during the past 60,000 years / Overkill hypothesis not confirmed For tens of thousands of years, herds of large mammals such as mammoth and bison roamed the landscape of what is now Central Europe.

Earth Sciences - 08.12.2022
Mapping the chemistry of the Earth’s mantle
Publication of the LGL-TPE in the journal PNAS on November 21, 2022. CNRS-INSU communication on December 7, 2022. In the 1980s, geochemical observations led researchers to propose a geodynamic model of the mantle's marbled structure. A team of scientists, some of whom are attached to the Laboratory of Geology of Lyon: Earth, Planets, Environment (LGL-TPE, CNRS/ENS de Lyon/Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University), has been working on this model using a seismological perspective.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 07.12.2022
The three dimensions of a flower
The three dimensions of a flower
Montreal biologists publish a study demonstrating that photogrammetry allows rapid and precise three-dimensional reconstruction of flowers from two-dimensional images. CONTENU - To better understand the evolution of flowers, a research team in biology from Université de Montréal, the Montreal Botanical Garden and McGill University have succeeded in using photogrammetry to quickly and precisely build, in three dimensions, a model of a flower from two-dimensional images.

Earth Sciences - 06.12.2022
Short-lived Ice Streams
Short-lived Ice Streams
Major ice streams can shut down, shifting rapid ice transport to other parts of the ice sheet, within a few thousand years. This was determined in reconstructions of two ice streams, based on ice-penetrating radar scans of the Greenland ice sheet, that a team of researchers led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, in which the University of Tübingen is also involved, has just presented in the journal Nature Geoscience.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 05.12.2022
Chip lets scientists study biocement formation in real-time
Chip lets scientists study biocement formation in real-time
Scientists from EPFL and the University of Lausanne have used a chip that was originally designed for environmental science to study the properties of biocement formation. This material has the potential to replace traditional cement binders in certain civil engineering applications. The chip has the size of a credit card and its surface is engraved with a flow channel measuring one meter from end to end and as thick as a human hair.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 02.12.2022
Researchers’ study accurately predicted location of Mauna Loa eruption
Research conducted by a University of Miami scientist and his graduate assistant accurately predicted which of the two rift zones of Hawaii's Mauna Loa volcano would erupt. The Mauna Loa, the world's largest active volcano, began erupting on Nov. 27 for the first time in nearly 40 years, spewing lava 100 feet to 200 feet into the air.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 30.11.2022
Clouds less sensitive to climate than assumed
Trade wind cumulus clouds are found on about 20 percent of the globe and cool the planet. Until now, it was expected that these clouds would become fewer due to global warming and thus exacerbate climate change. A team led by Dr. Raphaela Vogel of the University of Hamburg has now been able to disprove this.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 29.11.2022
Mapping the chemistry of the Earth's mantle
Mapping the chemistry of the Earth’s mantle
The Earth's mantle makes up about 85% of the Earth's volume and is made of solid rock. But what rock types is the mantle exactly made of, and how are they distributed throughout the mantle? An international team of researchers - including UT researcher Dr Juan Carlos Afonso (Faculty of ITC) - have been able to reveal the existence of pockets of rocks with abnormal properties that suggest that they were once created at the surface, transported to vast depths along subduction zones, and accumulated at specific depths inside the Earth's mantle.

Chemistry - Earth Sciences - 24.11.2022
Possible organic compounds found in Mars crater rocks
Possible organic compounds found in Mars crater rocks
Rock samples from the Jezero crater analysed by the Perseverance rover show evidence of liquid water and signatures that could be organic compounds. A study published in Science analyses multiple rocks found at the bottom of Jezero Crater on Mars, where the Perseverance rover landed in 2020, revealing significant interaction between the rocks and liquid water.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 18.11.2022
Sea level rise to dramatically speed up erosion of rock coastlines by 2100
Rock coasts, which make up over half the world's coastlines, could retreat more rapidly in the future due to accelerating sea level rise. This is according to new research led by Imperial College London and supported by researchers from the University of Glasgow. The researchers modelled likely future cliff retreat rates of two rock coasts in the UK, based on forecasts of sea level rise for different greenhouse gas emissions and climate change scenarios.
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