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Earth Sciences
16.02.2018
Scientists eavesdrop on volcanic rumblings to forecast eruptions
Sound waves generated by burbling lakes of lava atop some volcanoes point to greater odds of magmatic outbursts. This finding could provide advance warning to people who live near active volcanoes. A new study has shown that monitoring inaudible low frequencies called infrasound produced by a type of active volcano could improve the forecasting of significant, potentially deadly eruptions.
Earth Sciences - Life Sciences
15.02.2018
Scientists shed light on Burgess Shale preservation for first time
The fossil Waptia from the Burgess Shale, Canada. New Oxford University research suggests that the mineralogy of the surrounding earth is key to conserving soft parts of organisms, and finding more exceptional fossils like the Waptia. Image credit: Yale University Fossils that preserve entire organisms (including both hard and soft body parts) are critical to our understanding of evolution and ancient life on Earth.
Earth Sciences - Innovation/Technology
08.02.2018
New map profiles induced earthquake risk
A map created by Stanford geophysicists can help predict which parts of West Texas and New Mexico may be at risk of fracking-induced earthquakes. The map could guide oil discovery efforts in the region. Stanford geophysicists have developed a detailed map of the stresses that act in the Earth throughout the Permian Basin in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico, highlighting areas of the oil-rich region that could be at greater risk for future earthquakes induced by production operations.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
07.02.2018
Increased UV from ozone depletion sterilizes trees
Increased UV from ozone depletion sterilizes trees
Pine trees become temporarily sterile when exposed to ultraviolet radiation as intense as some scientists believe the Earth experienced 252 million years ago during the planet's largest mass extinction, lending support to the theory that ozone depletion contributed to the crisis. Jeffrey Benca exposed dwarf pines to 13 times the level of dangerous UV-B radiation we get on a sunny day, and found that the conditions, similar to what some think occured during Earth's largest extinction 252 million years ago, made the trees sterile.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
06.02.2018
Decay of the North American ice sheet since the last ice age decreased climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere
Decay of the North American ice sheet since the last ice age decreased climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere
A scientist from the University of Bristol is part of an international team that has shown that the changing topography of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere during the last Ice Age forced changes in the climate of Antarctica, a previously undocumented inter-polar climate change mechanism. The new research co-authored by Dr William Roberts from Bristol's School of Geographical Sciences and led by the University of Colorado Boulder has been published in the journal Nature .
Earth Sciences - Chemistry
06.02.2018
The ozone layer continues to thin
The vital ozone layer has continued to deplete in recent years over the densely populated mid-latitudes and tropics, while it is recovering at the poles. This is documented by an international research team in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. The ozone layer protects life on earth from high-energy radiation.
Chemistry - Earth Sciences
06.02.2018
Ozone at lower latitudes is not recovering, despite Antarctic ozone hole healing
Ozone at lower latitudes is not recovering, despite Antarctic ozone hole healing
The ozone layer is recovering at the poles, but unexpected decreases in part of the atmosphere may be preventing recovery at lower latitudes. Global ozone has been declining since the 1970s owing to certain man-made chemicals. Since these were banned, parts of the layer have been recovering, particularly at the poles.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
05.02.2018
UW atmospheric scientists flying through clouds above Antarctica's Southern Ocean
UW atmospheric scientists flying through clouds above Antarctica’s Southern Ocean
University of Washington scientists are part of an international team that is spending six weeks in the remote Southern Ocean to tackle one of the region's many mysteries: its clouds. What they discover will be used to improve climate models, which routinely underestimate how much solar energy bounces off clouds in that region.
Earth Sciences
01.02.2018
Oklahoma's earthquakes strongly linked to wastewater injection depth
Oklahoma’s earthquakes strongly linked to wastewater injection depth
Man-made earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA, are strongly linked to the depth at which wastewater from the oil and gas industry are injected into the ground, according to a new study led by the University of Bristol. Oklahoma has been a seismic hotspot for the past decade, with the number of damaging earthquakes — including the magnitude 5.8 Pawnee earthquake in 2016 — regularly impacting on the lives of residents, leading to litigation against well operators.
Earth Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
01.02.2018
Earth Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
31.01.2018
Research team studies how calcium compounds accumulate in the arteries
A team of researchers from McGill University has advanced the scientific understanding of abnormal mineral accumulation in arteries, a complication often seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Mineralized arteries may affect heart functions, leading to death in some instances. Team leader Marta Cerruti, using the tools of the Canadian Light Source, has examined the mineralized arteries of genetically modified laboratory mice and found that the pathway in the body that leads to what laypeople call "hardening of the arteries" is not what medical experts previously assumed.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
24.01.2018
Record jump in 2014-2016 global temperatures largest since 1900
Record jump in 2014-2016 global temperatures largest since 1900
ANN ARBOR-Global surface temperatures surged by a record amount from 2014 to 2016, boosting the total amount of warming since the start of the last century by more than 25 percent in just three years, according to a University of Arizona-led team that includes a University of Michigan scientist. "Our paper is the first one to actually quantify this jump and identify the fundamental reason for this jump," said lead author Jianjun Yin, a University of Arizona associate professor of geosciences.
History/Archeology - Earth Sciences
24.01.2018
Frozen in time: glacial archaeology on the roof of Norway
Frozen in time: glacial archaeology on the roof of Norway
Artefacts revealed by melting ice patches in the high mountains of Oppland shed new light on ancient high-altitude hunting.  Town-dwellers needed mountain products such as antlers for artefact manufacture and probably also furs James Barrett Climate change is one of the most important issues facing people today and year on year the melting of glacial ice patches in Scandinavia, the Alps and North America reveals and then destroys vital archaeological records of past human activity.
Life Sciences - Earth Sciences
23.01.2018
Insects took off when they evolved wings
Now buzzing and whizzing around every continent, insects were mysteriously scarce in the fossil record until 325 million years ago - when they first took flight and, according to a new study, evolutionarily took off. The evolution of wings not only allowed ancient insects to become the first creatures on Earth to take to the skies, but also propelled their rise to become one of nature's great success stories, according to a new study.
Earth Sciences
23.01.2018
Tiny crystals could help predict volcanic eruptions
Tiny crystals could help predict volcanic eruptions
They can be as small as a grain of salt, but tiny crystals that form deep in volcanoes may be the key for advance warnings before volcanic eruptions. University of Queensland vulcanologist Dr Teresa Ubide said the research provided new information that could lead to more effective evacuations and warning communications.
Education/Continuing Education - Earth Sciences
22.01.2018
Understanding meltwater drainpipe formation In Greenland ice sheet
Understanding meltwater drainpipe formation In Greenland ice sheet
Moulins, vertical conduits that penetrate through the half-mile-deep ice, efficiently funnel the majority of summer meltwater from the ice surface to the base of the ice sheet. Forming a moulin in Greenland requires a crack on the ice surface, which becomes filled with water that eventually drives the crack through the ice.
Earth Sciences
18.01.2018
Temporary 'bathtub drains' in the ocean concentrate flotsam
Temporary ’bathtub drains’ in the ocean concentrate flotsam
An experiment featuring the largest flotilla of sensors ever deployed in a single area provides new insights into how marine debris, or flotsam, moves on the surface of the ocean. The experiment conducted in the Gulf of Mexico near the site of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill placed hundreds of drifting sensors to observe how material moves on the ocean's surface.
Physics/Materials Science - Earth Sciences
11.01.2018
Robert N. Clayton, ’one of the giants’ of cosmochemistry, 1930-2017
Prof. Emeritus Robert N. Clayton, whose pioneering research on the chemistry of meteorites and lunar rocks helped shape the field of cosmochemistry, died on Dec. 30. He was 87. In the foreword of a book dedicated to Clayton , Smithsonian geologist Glenn MacPherson wrote that Clayton "could easily wear the name 'Mr. Oxygen.'" Clayton pioneered the use of oxygen isotopes as "fingerprints," creating a relatively simple test to distinguish meteorites from ordinary rocks as well as a revolution in the burgeoning field of cosmochemistry.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
09.01.2018
Why did the elephant cross the road? In Malaysia they are trying to find the answer
The body of an elephant calf lies on the side of a remote highway in the north of Peninsular Malaysia - the East-West Highway is flanked by two wildlife refuges, Royal Belum State Park and the Temengor Forest Reserve. It is stories like this in the Malaysian media that are of increasing concern to wildlife experts.
Astronomy - Earth Sciences
08.01.2018
Strong El Niño Events Cause Large Changes in Antarctic Ice Shelves
A new study published Jan. 8 Geoscience reveals that strong El Niño events can cause significant ice loss in some Antarctic ice shelves while the opposite may occur during strong La Niña events. El Niño and La Niña are two distinct phases of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a naturally occurring phenomenon characterized by how water temperatures in the tropical Pacific periodically oscillate between warmer than average during El Niños and cooler during La Niñas.
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