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Physics/Materials Science - Earth Sciences
20.11.2017
'Brazil Nut Effect' Helps Explain How Rivers Resist Erosion, Penn Team Finds
’Brazil Nut Effect’ Helps Explain How Rivers Resist Erosion, Penn Team Finds
Pop the top off a can of mixed nuts and, chances are, Brazil nuts will be at the top. This phenomenon, of large particles tending to rise to the top of mixtures while small particles tend to sink down, is popularly known as the "Brazil nut effect" and more technically as granular segregation. Look down at the top of a riverbed and it's easy to draw a parallel: the top of a riverbed is typically lined with larger cobbles, while finer sand and small gravel particles make up the deeper layers.
Earth Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
20.11.2017
Research Becomes Reality in Study of Fire Impact on Sonoma Water Resources
Research Becomes Reality in Study of Fire Impact on Sonoma Water Resources
Scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) spent a decade developing world-class modeling and monitoring capabilities to pinpoint factors behind the success of Sonoma's riverbank filtration system. They were turning their attention to investigating the potential impact of extreme events, such as storms and wildfires, when disaster struck.
Life Sciences - Earth Sciences
16.11.2017
Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors
Profs. Susan Kidwell and David Jablonski with the Jablonskipora kidwellae fossil, a tiny marine creature named after them. Lurking in oceans, rivers and lakes around the world are tiny, ancient animals known to few people. Bryozoans, tiny marine creatures that live in colonies, are "living fossils"-their lineage goes back to the time when multi-celled life was a newfangled concept.
Earth Sciences - Life Sciences
13.11.2017
World's longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
World’s longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
In 2009, the world's largest dinosaur tracks were discovered in the French village of Plagne, in the Jura Mountains. Since then, a series of excavations at the site has uncovered other tracks, sprawling over more than 150 meters. They form the longest sauropod trackway ever to be found.
Earth Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
10.11.2017
New insights into the 2004 Sumatra megathrust earthquake
New insights into the 2004 Sumatra megathrust earthquake
Research news Scientists in Munich have completed the first detailed simulation of the Sumatra earthquake that triggered a devastating tsunami on Christmas 2004. The results of the largest-ever rupture dynamics simulation of an earthquake offer new insights into the underlying geophysical processes. It was performed on the SuperMUC supercomputer at the Leibniz Supercomputing Center (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich.
Earth Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
03.11.2017
Atmospheric rivers could increase flood risk by 80 per cent
The global effect and impact of atmospheric rivers on rainfall, flooding and droughts has been estimated for the first time - revealing that in some regions the risks can be enhanced by up to 80 percent.The work, of which Oxford University is a key partner, also considers the number of people affected by these atmospheric phenomena across the globe.
Earth Sciences
01.11.2017
Time to rewrite the dinosaur textbooks' Not quite yet!
Time to rewrite the dinosaur textbooks’ Not quite yet!
However, this is not at all the case. Recently, Matthew Baron and colleagues from the University of Cambridge proposed a radical revision to our understanding of the major branches of dinosaurs, but in a critique published today some caution is proposed before we rewrite the textbooks.
Earth Sciences - Physics/Materials Science
01.11.2017
New Research Could Predict La Niña Drought Years in Advance
New Research Could Predict La Niña Drought Years in Advance
The La Nia weather pattern can cause droughts in the southern United States, including parts of eastern Texas. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Two new studies from The University of Texas at Austin have significantly improved scientists' ability to predict the strength and duration of droughts caused by La Nia - a recurrent cooling pattern in the tropical Pacific Ocean.
Life Sciences - Earth Sciences
31.10.2017
Aliens may be more like us than we think
Hollywood films and science fiction literature fuel the belief that aliens are monster-like beings, who are very different to humans. But new research suggests that we could have more in common with our extra-terrestrial neighbours, than initially thought. In a new study published in the International Journal of Astrobiology scientists from the University of Oxford show for the first time how evolutionary theory can be used to support alien predictions and better understand their behaviour.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
27.10.2017
Winds Driving Warm Water Under East Antarctic
Winds Driving Warm Water Under East Antarctic
Totten Glacier is the largest glacier in East Antarctica. Scientists are concerned that if Totten loses enough mass it could destabilize the rest of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. UT Austin/University of Texas Institute for Geophysics. AUSTIN, Texas - Totten Glacier, the largest glacier in East Antarctica, is being melted from below by warm water that reaches the ice when winds over the ocean are strong - a cause for concern because the glacier holds more than 11 feet of sea level rise and acts as a plug that helps lock in the ice of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
Earth Sciences - Environment/Sustainable Development
26.10.2017
The oceans were colder than we thought
The oceans were colder than we thought
A team of EPFLand European researchers has discovered a flaw in the way past ocean temperatures have been estimated up to now. Their findings could mean that the current period of climate change is unparalleled over the last 100 million years. According to the methodology widely used by the scientific community, the temperature of the ocean depths and that of the surface of the polar ocean 100 million years ago were around 15 degrees higher than current readings.
Astronomy - Earth Sciences
26.10.2017
Ocean sound waves may reveal location of incoming objects
Ocean sound waves may reveal location of incoming objects
The ocean can seem like an acoustically disorienting place, with muffled sounds from near and far blending together in a murky sea of noise. Now an MIT mathematician has found a way to cut through this aquatic cacaphony, to identify underwater sound waves generated by objects impacting the ocean's surface, such as debris from meteorites or aircraft.
Earth Sciences - Agronomy/Food Science
23.10.2017
Crops evolving ten millennia before experts thought
Ancient peoples began to systematically affect evolution of crops up to 30,000 years ago - ten millennia before experts previously thought, says new University of Warwick research Rice, wheat and barley were used so much that their evolution was affected - beginning the process that eventually turned them from wild to domesticated - as long ago as the last Ice Age Einkorn found to be on the evolutionary trajectory to domestication up to 30,000 y
Earth Sciences - Life Sciences
23.10.2017
World’s oldest and most complex trees
The first trees to have ever grown on Earth were also the most complex, new research has revealed. Fossils from a 374-million-year-old tree found in north-west China have revealed an interconnected web of woody strands within the trunk of the tree that is much more intricate than that of the trees we see around us today.
Earth Sciences - Mechanical Engineering/Mechanics
19.10.2017
Hydroelectric power plants have to be adapted for climate change
Hydroelectric power plants have to be adapted for climate change
Of all the electricity produced in Switzerland, 56% comes from hydropower. The life span of hydroelectric plants, which are massive and expensive to build and maintain, is measured in decades, yet the rivers and streams they depend on and the surrounding environment are ever-changing.
Earth Sciences - Chemistry
18.10.2017
48-million-year-old wax discovered in a bird fossil
48-million-year-old wax discovered in a bird fossil
Researchers have analysed a well-preserved preening gland in a 48-million-year-old bird fossil and discovered original oil and wax molecules within it. The fossil is from the famous Messel locality in Germany, well known to preserve birds, mammals, fish, reptiles, insects and leaves with exceptional details.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
17.10.2017
Hardy corals take to the seas to build new reefs from scratch
Tough species of corals can go mobile and lay the foundations for new reefs in otherwise inhospitable areas, a study shows. Scientists have discovered that the rolling and resilient corals can act as a base upon which other corals attach and build reefs by creating their own stable habitats. The finding sheds new light on the mobile corals - called coralliths - which grow on pebbles or fragments of dead reefs, and can survive being buffeted by waves and ocean currents.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
12.10.2017
Rainfall trends in arid regions buck commonly held climate change theories
Rainfall trends in arid regions buck commonly held climate change theories
The recent intense hurricanes in the Atlantic have sharply focused attention on how climate change can exacerbate extreme weather events. Scientific research suggests that global warming causes heavier rainfall because a hotter atmosphere can hold more moisture and warmer oceans evaporate faster feeding the atmosphere with more moisture.
Astronomy - Earth Sciences
12.10.2017
Intense storms batter Saturn's largest moon, UCLA scientists report
Intense storms batter Saturn’s largest moon, UCLA scientists report
Titan, the largest of Saturn's more than 60 moons, has surprisingly intense rainstorms, according to research by a team of UCLA planetary scientists and geologists. Although the storms are relatively rare — they occur less than once per Titan year, which is 29 and a half Earth years — they occur much more frequently than the scientists expected.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Earth Sciences
10.10.2017
Little growth observed in India's methane emissions
Little growth observed in India’s methane emissions
Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas and concentrations are rising in the atmosphere. Because of its potency and quick decay in the atmosphere, countries have recognised that reduction of methane emissions are a means toward mitigating global warming. In light of the new international climate agreement, the Paris Agreement, there is increasing need for countries to accurately quantify their greenhouse gas emissions and to have independent checks on this reporting.
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