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Life Sciences - 21.01.2021
Size of Connections between Nerve Cells Determines Signaling Strength
Size of Connections between Nerve Cells Determines Signaling Strength
Nerve cells communicate with one another via synapses. Neuroscientists at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich have now found that these connections seem to be much more powerful than previously thought. The larger the synapse, the stronger the signal it transmits. These findings will enable a better understanding of how the brain functions and how neurological disorders arise.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.01.2021
NAD+ can restore age-related muscle deterioration
Scientists at EPFL have discovered that Alzheimer's-like protein aggregates underly the muscle deterioration seen in aging. But the aggregates can be reversed by boosting the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), which turns on the defense systems of mitochondria in cells and restores muscle function.

Life Sciences - 20.01.2021
New starfish-like fossil reveals evolution in action
New starfish-like fossil reveals evolution in action
Researchers from the University of Cambridge have discovered a fossil of the earliest starfish-like animal, which helps us understand the origins of the nimble-armed creature.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.01.2021
New biomaterials can be ’fine-tuned’ for medical applications
Researchers in the UK and the United States have succeeded in ‘fine tuning' a new thermoplastic biomaterial to enable both the rate at which it degrades in the body and its mechanical properties to be controlled independently. The material, a type of polyester, has been designed for use in soft tissue repair or flexible bioelectronics by a team at the University of Birmingham in the UK and Duke University in the US.

Research Management - Life Sciences - 19.01.2021
Roeder Named Among World’s Most Highly Cited Researchers
Kathryn Roeder , UPMC Professor of Statistics and Life Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University, was named as one of the world's most highly cited in the sciences, according to a list published by Clarivate Analytics. "I have made a career of communicating complex ideas as simply as possible. People are impressed by complicated papers, but they cite work they understand," said Roeder.

Life Sciences - Health - 19.01.2021
How to Find Mutated Sperm? Just Go FISH
How to Find Mutated Sperm? Just Go FISH
A new test quickly and easily identifies when sperm are carrying chromosomal mutations, and could be applied for men hoping to have children Chemotherapy and radiation treatments are known to cause harsh side effects that patients can see or feel throughout their bodies. Yet there are additional, unseen and often undiscussed consequences of these important therapies: the impacts on their future pregnancies and hopes for healthy children.

Life Sciences - Environment - 19.01.2021
Counting elephants from space
Satellite images processed with the help of computer algorithms devised at the University of Bath are a promising new tool for surveying endangered wildlife. Last updated on Tuesday 19 January 2021 For the first time, scientists have successfully used satellite cameras coupled with deep learning to count animals in complex geographical landscapes, taking conservationists an important step forward in monitoring populations of endangered species.

Health - Life Sciences - 19.01.2021
Eye tests predict Parkinson’s-linked cognitive decline 18 months ahead
Simple vision tests can predict which people with Parkinson's disease will develop cognitive impairment and possible dementia 18 months later, according to a new study by UCL researchers. The study, published in Movement Disorders , adds to evidence that vision changes precede the cognitive decline that occurs in many, but not all, people with Parkinson's.

Life Sciences - 18.01.2021
Snap-freezing reveals a truer structure of brain connections
Snap-freezing reveals a truer structure of brain connections
Scientists at EPFL have used a snap-freezing method to reveal the true structure of the connections that join neurons together in the adult brain. Most synaptic connections in the adult brain are situated on dendritic spines; small, micrometer-long, protrusions extending from the neurons' surface. The spines' exact size and shape determine how well signals are passed from one neuron to another.

Health - Life Sciences - 18.01.2021
Genetic factors involved in shaping the composition of the human gut microbiome, finds international research team
Human genes have an impact on shaping our gut ecosystem according to new evidence from the international MIBioGen consortium study involving more than 18,000 people. The findings, led by the University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands and involving researchers at the University of Bristol, are published today [18 January] .

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 18.01.2021
Dinosaur-era sea lizard had teeth like a shark
New study identifies a bizarre new species suggesting that giant marine lizards thrived before the asteroid wiped them out 66 million years ago. Last updated on Monday 18 January 2021 A new species of mosasaur - an ancient sea-going lizard from the age of dinosaurs - has been found with shark-like teeth that gave it a deadly slicing bite.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 18.01.2021
Where do our minds wander? Brain waves can point the way
Anyone who has tried and failed to meditate knows that our minds are rarely still. But where do they roam? New research led by UC Berkeley has come up with a way to track the flow of our internal thought processes and signal whether our minds are focused, fixated or wandering. Using an electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure brain activity while people performed mundane attention tasks, researchers identified brain signals that reveal when the mind is not focused on the task at hand or aimlessly wandering, especially after concentrating on an assignment.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.01.2021
Researchers use lasers and molecular tethers to create perfectly patterned platforms for tissue engineering
Researchers use lasers and molecular tethers to create perfectly patterned platforms for tissue engineering
Imagine going to a surgeon to have a diseased or injured organ switched out for a fully functional, laboratory-grown replacement. This remains science fiction and not reality because researchers today struggle to organize cells into the complex 3D arrangements that our bodies can master on their own.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 15.01.2021
How plants produce defensive toxins without harming themselves
How plants produce defensive toxins without harming themselves
Plants produce toxic substances to defend themselves against herbivores. In a new study, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena and the University of Münster were able to describe in detail the biosynthesis and exact mode of action of an important group of defensive substances, the diterpene glycosides, in wild tobacco plants.

Environment - Life Sciences - 15.01.2021
Digging Beneath the Surface
Digging Beneath the Surface
Researchers call for greater consideration of soil biodiversity and its ecological functions in developing international conservation strategies No 008/2021 from Jan 15, 2021 The soil is home to a quarter of all known species. In fact, life above ground wouldn't be possible without the soil and its countless inhabitants.

Life Sciences - Physics - 15.01.2021
Snakes evolve a magnetic way to be resistant to venom
Snakes evolve a magnetic way to be resistant to venom
Certain snakes have evolved a unique genetic trick to avoid being eaten by venomous snakes, according to University of Queensland research. Associate Professor Bryan Fry from UQ's Toxin Evolution Lab said the technique worked in a manner similar to the way two sides of a magnet repel each other. “The target of snake venom neurotoxins is a strongly negatively charged nerve receptor,' Dr Fry said.

Campus - Life Sciences - 15.01.2021
Well-built muscles underlie athletic performance in birds
Muscle structure and body size predict the athletic performance of Olympic athletes, such as sprinters. The same, it appears, is true of wild seabirds that can commute hundreds of kilometres a day to find food, according to a recent paper by scientists from McGill and Colgate universities published in the Journal of Experimental Biology .

Health - Life Sciences - 14.01.2021
New insight into why breastfed babies have improved immune systems
New insight into why breastfed babies have improved immune systems
Research led by the University of Birmingham and Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust has revealed new insight into the biological mechanisms of the long-term positive health effects of breastfeeding in preventing disorders of the immune system in later life. Breastfeeding is known to be associated with better health outcomes in infancy and throughout adulthood, and previous research has shown that babies receiving breastmilk are less likely to develop asthma, obesity, and autoimmune diseases later in life compared to those who are exclusively formula fed.

Life Sciences - Environment - 14.01.2021
Foraging humans, mammals and birds who live in the same place behave similarly
Foraging humans find food, reproduce, share parenting, and even organise their social groups in similar ways as surrounding mammal and bird species, depending on where they live in the world, new research has found. The study , shows environmental factors exert a key influence on how foraging human populations and non-human species behave, despite their very different backgrounds.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 14.01.2021
Spectacular fossil discovery: 150 million-year-old shark was one of the largest of its time
Spectacular fossil discovery: 150 million-year-old shark was one of the largest of its time
In a new study, an international research team led by Sebastian Stumpf from the University of Vienna describes an exceptionally well-preserved skeleton of the ancient shark Asteracanthus. This extremely rare fossil find comes from the famous Solnhofen limestones in Bavaria, which was formed in a tropical-subtropical lagoon landscape during the Late Jurassic, about 150 million years ago.
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