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Life Sciences - Chemistry
20.11.2017
Cholesterol helps flu virus escape through host cell's membrane
Cholesterol helps flu virus escape through host cell’s membrane
After a flu virus infects a host cell and hijacks its inner workings to create copies of itself, these copies gather into viral buds that break free from the host cell to infect again. A new study from MIT now provides the clearest picture yet of how the buds are pinched off from the host cell membrane.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Life Sciences
20.11.2017
How our forests are adapting to climate change
How our forests are adapting to climate change
How do trees adjust to the effects of global warming? EPFL researchers have studied how beech and spruce trees - two of the most common plant species in Europe - react to changing temperatures. And they discovered that the amount of moisture in the air plays a decisive role. Rising temperatures, increasingly intense rainfall and extended periods of drought are some of the known effects of climate change.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
20.11.2017
Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs
Cell-weighing method could help doctors choose cancer drugs
Doctors have many drugs available to treat multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. However, there is no way to predict, by genetic markers or other means, how a patient will respond to a particular drug. This can lead to months of treatment with a drug that isn't working. Researchers at MIT have now shown that they can use a new type of measurement to predict how drugs will affect cancer cells taken from multiple-myeloma patients.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Life Sciences
17.11.2017
Plants release more carbon dioxide into atmosphere than expected
The study shows that as global temperatures increase, the amount of carbon dioxide released through plant respiration will increase significantly. A new study involving ANU and international collaborators has found plants release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through respiration than expected, and the problem will worsen with climate change.
Life Sciences - Chemistry
17.11.2017
Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity
Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — Specially tailored, ultrafast pulses of light can trigger neurons to fire and could one day help patients with light-sensitive circadian or mood problems, according to a new study in mice at the University of Illinois. Chemists have used such carefully crafted light beams, called coherent control, to regulate chemical reactions, but this study is the first demonstration of using them to control function in a living cell.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
17.11.2017
Improved method of engineering T-cells to attack cancer
Researchers at Cardiff University have found a way to boost the cancer-destroying ability of the immune system's T-cells, offering new hope in the fight against a wide range of cancers. Using CRISPR genome editing, the team took the genetic engineering of killer T-cells one step further by removing their non-cancer specific receptors and replacing them with ones that would recognise specific cancer cells and destroy them.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
16.11.2017
Detailed View of Immune Proteins Could Lead to New Pathogen-Defense Strategies
Shown is a structure of the first three subunits of an inflammasome, which consists of the NAIP5 and NLRC4 immune proteins, captured using cryo-electron microscopy. The NAIP5 subunit of the inflammasome is bound to flagellin (shown in light purple), a protein that is part of the flagellum some bacteria use to move around.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
16.11.2017
Dolphin mouths house ’dark matter of the biological world’
Studying the bacteria found in the mouths of dolphins is giving researchers insight into dolphin health and the unique nature of marine mammals in general.     National Marine Mammal Foundation Researchers have identified two deep lineages of bacteria that have never been characterized before - and they found them in a dolphin's toothy grin.
Life Sciences - Earth Sciences
16.11.2017
Fossil that fills missing evolutionary link named after UChicago professors
Profs. Susan Kidwell and David Jablonski with the Jablonskipora kidwellae fossil, a tiny marine creature named after them. Lurking in oceans, rivers and lakes around the world are tiny, ancient animals known to few people. Bryozoans, tiny marine creatures that live in colonies, are "living fossils"-their lineage goes back to the time when multi-celled life was a newfangled concept.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Life Sciences
16.11.2017
Species in the north are more vulnerable to climate change
Species in the north are more vulnerable to climate change
For the first time, researchers have proposed the hypothesis that animals that live in climate zones at a safe distance from both the poles as well as the tropics have the most to gain from acclimating to changes in climate. The findings contradict previous research in the field. Acclimation means the ability of both animals and plants to adjust their physiology when it gets hotter or colder.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
16.11.2017
Stress can lead to risky decisions
Stress can lead to risky decisions
Making decisions is not always easy, especially when choosing between two options that have both positive and negative elements, such as deciding between a job with a high salary but long hours, and a lower-paying job that allows for more leisure time. MIT neuroscientists have now discovered that making decisions in this type of situation, known as a cost-benefit conflict, is dramatically affected by chronic stress.
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
16.11.2017
Genomic study explores evolution of gentle 'killer bees' in Puerto Rico
Genomic study explores evolution of gentle ’killer bees’ in Puerto Rico
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — A genomic study of Puerto Rico's Africanized honey bees - which are more docile than other so-called “killer bees” - reveals that they retain most of the genetic traits of their African honey bee ancestors, but that a few regions of their DNA have become more like those of European honey bees.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
16.11.2017
’Mini liver tumours’ created in a dish for the first time
Scientists have created mini biological models of human primary liver cancers, known as organoids, in the lab for the first time. In a paper published , the tiny laboratory models of tumours were used to identify a new drug that could potentially treat certain types of liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is the second most lethal cancer worldwide.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
16.11.2017
Veni Vidi Vici
Multidrug resistance of microbes poses a serious global threat to human health. Such resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae significantly reduce therapeutic options for the treatment of Klebsiella-induced, potentially fatal pneumonia or sepsis.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
Raising ’good’ cholesterol fails to protect against heart disease
Raising so-called 'good' cholesterol by blocking a key protein involved in its metabolism does not protect against heart disease or stroke, according to a large genetic study of 150,000 Chinese adults published in the journal JAMA Cardiology. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: LDL-C, so-called 'bad' cholesterol, which is carried in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and HDL-C, so-called 'good' cholesterol which is found in high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
Life Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
15.11.2017
Signalling protein found to drive heart scarring and organ failure
Signalling protein found to drive heart scarring and organ failure
A part of the immune system once thought to prevent organ damage is actually a leading cause of scarring and heart failure, a study has found. Researchers at Imperial College London discovered that a protein called interleukin 11 (IL-11) plays a key role in the scarring process, which in turn causes heart, kidney and liver failure.
Environment/Sustainable Development - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
Amazonian streams found teeming with fish species are lacking protection
Amazonian streams found teeming with fish species are lacking protection
Hundreds of thousands of Amazonian streams are teeming with highly diverse populations of fish species, a new study reveals. Scientists have found that small streams, in areas of the eastern Brazilian Amazon that are a mixture of forest and farmland, contain fauna new to science, as well as very rare species.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
Improving clinical trials with machine learning
Improving clinical trials with machine learning
Machine learning could improve our ability to determine whether a new drug works in the brain, potentially enabling researchers to detect drug effects that would be missed entirely by conventional statistical tests, finds a new UCL study published today in Brain . "Current statistical models are too simple.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
Gut microbes can protect against high blood pressure
Gut microbes can protect against high blood pressure
Microbes living in your gut may help protect against the effects of a high-salt diet, according to a new study from MIT. The MIT team, working with researchers in Germany, found that in both mice and humans, a high-salt diet shrinks the population of a certain type of beneficial bacteria. As a result, pro-inflammatory immune cells called Th-17 cells grow in number.
Social Sciences - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
It’s (not) complicated: relationships may be simpler than they seem
New research sheds light on how social networks can evolve by showing that complex social patterns observed across the animal kingdom may be simpler than they appear. Image credit: Shutterstock New Oxford University research has shed light on the complexities involved in forming social bonds, and suggests that the process is much simpler than first thought.  Scientists from Oxford's Department of Zoology worked in collaboration with their peers at the University of Exeter to assess social patterns across the animal kingdom.
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