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Social Sciences - Life Sciences
15.11.2017
It’s (not) complicated: relationships may be simpler than they seem
New research sheds light on how social networks can evolve by showing that complex social patterns observed across the animal kingdom may be simpler than they appear. Image credit: Shutterstock New Oxford University research has shed light on the complexities involved in forming social bonds, and suggests that the process is much simpler than first thought.  Scientists from Oxford's Department of Zoology worked in collaboration with their peers at the University of Exeter to assess social patterns across the animal kingdom.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Social Sciences
13.11.2017
Society's excluded people ten times more likely to die early
Society’s excluded people ten times more likely to die early
People excluded from mainstream society in high-income countries have a tenfold increased risk of early death, according to research from UCL, homeless health charity Pathway and an international team of experts. The researchers found the mortality rate among socially excluded groups including homeless people, people who sell sex, prisoners and people who use hard drugs, was nearly eight times higher than the population average for men, and nearly 12 times for women.
Social Sciences
10.11.2017
Study highlights how community violence fosters antisocial behaviour in kids
Study highlights how community violence fosters antisocial behaviour in kids
Children and adolescents who are regularly confronted with violence in their communities have a greater tendency to show antisocial behaviour according to the authors of a new study published in the journal Frontiers of Behavioral Neuroscience . The research, from psychiatrists and psychologists at the University Psychiatric Hospital Basel (Switzerland) and the Universities of Bath, Southampton and Birmingham (UK), examined the link between exposure to community violence and antisocial behavior in over 1000 children and adolescents from seven European countries.
Social Sciences - Computer Science/Telecom
07.11.2017
Modeling social interactions to improve collective decision-making
Modeling social interactions to improve collective decision-making
How are we affected by other peoples' opinions' To answer this question, scientists 1 at the CNRS, Inra and Université Toulouse 1 Capitole conducted a study in France and Japan, quantifying this impact on our decisions. They identified five behaviors common to both countries: a majority of subjects make a compromise between their opinion and that of others (59% of people in France), some hold to their opinion (29% in France), whereas others follow faithfully, amplify or contradict the information they receive.
Life Sciences - Social Sciences
03.11.2017
ANU helps discover a new species of orangutan
The Australian National University (ANU) has played a leading role in the discovery of a new species of orangutan, which has been described for the first time in the latest edition of the Current Biology journal. The Tapanuli orangutan is a population of just 800 apes located in a small patch of forest in the north of Indonesian island Sumatra, making it the most endangered of the now seven known species of great apes.
Social Sciences
02.11.2017
Learning a mother tongue : A universal process ?
Learning a mother tongue : A universal process ?
How do children learn their mother tongue? This question has been the subject of few studies conducted outside of industrialized countries. At the Laboratoire de sciences cognitives et psycholinguistique (CNRS/ENS/EHESS), specialists in language development in children have studied a traditional population in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane 1 , in partnership with bio-anthropologists from Toulouse 1 Capitole University 2 and the University of California at Santa Barbara.
Social Sciences
01.11.2017
Seemed all right to me: Differences in feelings of tension contribute to divorce
ANN ARBOR-Women are twice as likely as men to file for divorce, and a new University of Michigan study sheds a little light on why. The study, which followed 355 couples over the course of 16 years, found that while marital tension increased over time, husbands' tensions increased at a greater rate than wives' tensions.
Life Sciences - Social Sciences
30.10.2017
CMU, Pitt Brain Imaging Science Identifies Individuals With Suicidal Thoughts
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University's Marcel Just and the University of Pittsburgh's David Brent have developed an innovative and promising approach to identify suicidal individuals by analyzing the alterations in how their brains represent certain concepts, such as death, cruelty and trouble.
Social Sciences
24.10.2017
Starting school at a younger age could benefit children in South Africa
Starting school at a younger age could benefit children in South Africa
Starting school at a younger age could benefit children in South Africa (24 October 2017) Children in South Africa could benefit from starting school a year earlier, according to new research by Durham University in the UK and the University of Pretoria in South Africa. The study found that those children who started school in Grade R, equivalent to Reception in the UK, were better prepared for school than those who started in the usual Grade 1.
Social Sciences - Sport Sciences
18.10.2017
Gentle touch soothes the pain of social rejection
Gentle touch soothes the pain of social rejection
The gentle touch of another individual soothes the effects of social exclusion, one of the most emotionally painful human experiences, according to new UCL research. The study, published today in Scientific Reports and funded by the European Research Council, tested the impact of a slow, affectionate touch against a fast, neutral touch following social rejection and found a specific relationship between gentle touch and social bonding.
Life Sciences - Social Sciences
18.10.2017
Exploring why some primates have bigger brains
Exploring why some primates have bigger brains
The accepted view of why some primates, including apes and humans, have evolved to have large brains is contested in new research from the Department of Anthropology. The study also questions whether brain size is a useful indicator of cognitive ability. Brain size and behaviour The research project, led by PhD student Lauren Powell, and published in Royal Society's Proceedings B journal , has found little evidence to support a long-held view that larger brains have developed to help primates cope with increasingly complex social structures - known as the Social Brain Hypothesis.
Life Sciences - Social Sciences
18.10.2017
Nature or Nurture? Innate Social Behaviors in the Mouse Brain
Nature or Nurture? Innate Social Behaviors in the Mouse Brain
Adult male mice have a simple repertoire of innate, or instinctive, social behaviors: When encountering a female, a male mouse will try to mate with it, and when encountering another male, the mouse will attack. The animals do not have to be taught to perform these behaviors. This has led to the widespread presumption among neuroscientists that the brain circuits mediating these behaviors are "hardwired," meaning that they are genetically encoded pathways with little flexibility.
Life Sciences - Social Sciences
17.10.2017
Brain activity predicts crowdfunding outcomes better than self-reports
ANN ARBOR-Surveys and self-reports are a time-honored way of trying to predict consumer behavior, but they have limitations. People often give socially desirable answers or they simply don't know or remember things clearly. A new study by Carolyn Yoon, University of Michigan professor of marketing, and colleagues Alexander Genevsky of Rotterdam School of Management and Brian Knutson of Stanford University suggests neural activity can not only be a better predictor of individual choices, but also can help forecast aggregate outcomes in the marketplace.
Medicine/Pharmacology - Social Sciences
12.10.2017
Risk factors for heart health linked to marital ups and downs
Risk factors for heart health linked to marital ups and downs
Risk factors for heart health seem to be linked to changes over time in the quality of marital relationships - at least for men - finds a University of Bristol study published in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. The available research points to an association between marital status and health, but it's not clear whether this observed link is influenced by the health of people entering into marriage or the protective effects of the marriage itself.
Social Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
10.10.2017
Mum’s immune response could trigger social deficits for kids with autism
Children with autism are more likely to show severe social symptoms if their mother had chronic asthma or allergies while pregnant, the University of Sydney's Brain and Mind Centre reveals today in Molecular Psychiatry. The retrospective cohort study of 220 Australian children , conducted between 2011-2014, indicates that a "an immune-mediated subtype" of autism driven by the body's inflammatory and immunological systems may be pivotal, according to the University of Sydney's Professor Adam Guastella.
Religions - Social Sciences
06.10.2017
Religion and social factors top IVF concerns
Although one in 8 couples experience fertility issues and many of them turn to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to help them have a child, usage varies significantly across Europe. A new Oxford study has shed light on some of the reasons behind this - pinpointing moral and social acceptance of the treatment and religion as key.
Social Sciences - Religions
06.10.2017
Social factors top IVF concerns
Although one in 8 couples experience fertility issues and many of them turn to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to help them have a child, usage varies significantly across Europe. A new Oxford study has shed light on some of the reasons behind this - pinpointing moral and social acceptance of the treatment and religion as key.
Social Sciences - Business/Economics
04.10.2017
To kick-start creativity, offer money, not plaudits, study finds
To kick-start creativity, offer money, not plaudits, study finds
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — How should employers reward creative types for turning in fresh, inventive work: with a plaque or a party recognizing their achievement, or with cold, hard cash? According to new research co-written by a University of Illinois expert in product development and marketing, it's all about the money, honey.
Social Sciences - Medicine/Pharmacology
03.10.2017
Parole violations help drive prison's revolving door
Parole violations help drive prison’s revolving door
!- Start of DoubleClick Floodlight Tag: Please do not remove Activity name of this tag: UCB001CP Retargeting URL of the webpage where the tag is expected to be placed: http://unknown This tag must be placed between the Failing a drug test, associating with felons and other technical parole violations are among the key drivers of prison's "revolving door," according to new UC Berkeley research.
Social Sciences - Administration/Government
03.10.2017
Minor parole violations behind high rate of reincarceration
ANN ARBOR-People convicted of felonies are more likely to return to prison if they are sentenced to prison rather than probation, according to a University of Michigan study. The study adds new evidence to the argument that a key driver of high incarceration rates is the readmission to prison of individuals recently released from prison, a phenomenon that has been called prison's "revolving door." It also shows that this self-perpetuating cycle of prison admissions is being driven largely by readmissions to prison for technical violations of parole rather than new crimes.
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