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Health - Life Sciences - 19.04.2024
Link between maternal diabetes and child ADHD may not be causal
While children of mothers with diabetes and more likely to develop ADHD, a new global analysis co-led by UCL and University of Hong Kong researchers suggests the relationship is likely not causal. The authors of the new Nature Medicine study, using data from over 3.6 million mother-baby pairs across three continents, say the link is likely due to genetic and familial factors that are shared between people with diabetes and ADHD.

Life Sciences - Health - 19.04.2024
Scientists analyse the potential of erythropoietin (EPO) as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric diseases
Scientists analyse the potential of erythropoietin (EPO) as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric diseases
Researchers from eleven centres in Spain, the United States and Germany, including the University of Valencia (UV), INCLIVA and Carlos III Health Institute, have analysed the effect on the human brain of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone secreted mainly by the kidneys, as well as its potential as therapy for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 18.04.2024
Scientists grow human mini-lungs as animal alternative for nanomaterial safety testing
Human mini-lungs grown by University of Manchester scientists mimic the response of animals when exposed to certain nanomaterials. The study at the University's NanoCell Biology Lab at the Centre for Nanotechnology in Medicine is published in the influential journal nanotoday . Though not expected to replace animal models completely, human organoids could soon lead to significant reductions in research animal numbers, the team led by cell biologist and nanotoxicologist Dr Sandra Vranic argues.

Life Sciences - Environment - 18.04.2024
Environmental changes influence microbial diversity
Environmental changes influence microbial diversity
Environmental changes influence microbial communities, which are crucial for the health of the earth and humans. For instance, altered eating habits with heavily processed foods can lead to disrupted gut flora, or intensive agricultural practices can disturb the carbon cycle in the soil, respectively.

Life Sciences - 18.04.2024
Does a Molecular Mechanism Protect against Traumatic Memories?
Does a Molecular Mechanism Protect against Traumatic Memories?
Neuroscientists identify effect of a protein that controls memories of fear-ridden events at the biological level A previously unknown molecular mechanism could protect the brain from traumatic memories and help prevent anxiety disorders at the biological level. A research team led by Dr Ana M. M.

Life Sciences - Health - 18.04.2024
Mutations in noncoding DNA become functional in some cancer-driving genes
Mutations in noncoding DNA become functional in some cancer-driving genes
These regions of the gene alter the abundance of mRNA and the proteins it instructs the cell to make Science + Technology These regions of the gene alter the abundance of mRNA and the proteins it instructs the cell to make Key takeaways Despite progress in defining functional elements of noncoding DNA, it is still not fully understood.

Life Sciences - 18.04.2024
Perfect balance: How the brain fine-tunes its sensitivity
Perfect balance: How the brain fine-tunes its sensitivity
A sensitive perception of the environment is crucial for guiding our behavior. However, an overly sensitive response of the brain's neural circuits to stimuli can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders such as epilepsy. University of Basel researchers report in the journal Nature how neuronal networks in the mouse brain are fine-tuned.

Life Sciences - 18.04.2024
Axons follow a signposted path to reach their muscular target
Publication of the IGFL in the journal PNAS on March 19, 2024. News by CNRS Biology on April 12, 2024. During embryonic development, motor neurons, located in the spinal cord, emit extensions - the axons - which must find their way to their targets - the muscle cells. These motoneurons, last link between electrical and mechanical signals in the locomotor system, trigger movement via their axons.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
Researchers help uncover potential breakthrough in treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s or Colitis)
RVC researchers help uncover potential breakthrough in treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's or Colitis) Pathologists from the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) have been working with scientists from the Francis Crick Institute (FCI) to untangle a complex pathway that could help explain how interactions between microorganisms and the body's immune defences lead to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Life Sciences - Environment - 17.04.2024
How soil microbes survive in harsh desert environments
How soil microbes survive in harsh desert environments
As desertification spreads worldwide, scientists discover how desert microbes endure harsh drought periods Prolonged droughts followed by sudden bursts of rainfall - how do desert soil bacteria manage to survive such harsh conditions? This long-debated question has now been answered by an ERC project led by microbiologist Dagmar Woebken from the Centre for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science (CeMESS) at the University of Vienna.

Life Sciences - Environment - 17.04.2024
Interspecies competition led to even more forms of ancient human - defying evolutionary trends in vertebrates
Interspecies competition led to even more forms of ancient human - defying evolutionary trends in vertebrates
Competition between species played a major role in the rise and fall of hominins, and produced a "bizarre" evolutionary pattern for the Homo lineage. This is almost unparalleled in evolutionary science Laura van Holstein Climate has long been held responsible for the emergence and extinction of hominin species.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 17.04.2024
First Nitrogen-Fixing Organelle
Scientists Discover First Nitrogen-Fixing Organelle " layout="backlink-only" Adapted from a release by Erin Malsbury at UC Santa Cruz Modern biology textbooks assert that only bacteria can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form that is usable for life. Plants that fix nitrogen, such as legumes, do so by harboring symbiotic bacteria in root nodules.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
New disease gene for epilepsy and developmental disorder discovered
New disease gene for epilepsy and developmental disorder discovered
GABA A receptors play a central role in the development of epilepsy and developmental disorders, with nine out of 19 GABA A receptor genes already associated with genetic diseases. Now, as part of an international study led by Martin Krenn from MedUni Vienna's Department of Neurology, GABRA4 has been identified as a new disease gene in four cases.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
Research explores how a father’s diet could shape the health of his offspring
A step towards understanding how the effect of diet could transmit from one generation to the next A mice study suggests a father's diet may shape the anxiety of his sons and the metabolic health of his daughters before they are even conceived. New research, published in Nature Communications , finds that the macronutrient balance in the diet of male mice affects the level of anxiety-like behaviour of sons and the metabolic health of daughters.

Health - Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
Bacteria behind meningitis in babies explained
A milestone study led by University of Queensland researchers has identified the main types of E. coli bacteria that cause neonatal meningitis, and revealed why some infections recur despite being treated with antibiotics. Professor Mark Schembri Dr Nhu Nguyen from UQ's Institute for Molecular Bioscience Associate Professor Adam Irwin from UQ's Centre for Clinical Research led a team which discovered that around 50 per cent of neonatal meningitis infections are caused by two types of E. coli.

Environment - Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
Coral reef microbes point to new way to assess ecosystem health
Coral reef microbes point to new way to assess ecosystem health
A new study shows that ocean acidification is changing the mix of microbes in coral reef systems, which can be used to assess ecosystem health. The study, published today in Microbiome , looked at coral reefs specifically, but the researchers say it could be widely applicable as a method for measuring how ecosystems are responding to human activities.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.04.2024
How Insects Control Their Wings: The Mysterious Mechanics of Insect Flight
Many of us would love the superpower to fly, and for good reason: Flight offers a crucial evolutionary advantage. Flying enables an animal to travel large distances quickly, in search of food and new habitats, while expending far less energy than walking. Through flight, insects colonized the planet and fostered the massive diversification of flowering plants by acting as efficient pollinators.

Life Sciences - 17.04.2024
Debunking a Decades-Long Misconception about the Origin of the Vertebrate Sympathetic Nervous System
For decades, researchers believed that lamprey-eel-like jawless fish-did not have sympathetic neurons, which are a part of the peripheral nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is made up of nerves that target internal organs throughout the body, including the heart, pancreas, and gut. Persistent activity of the sympathetic nervous system is required to maintain homeostasis, as it modulates processes such as cardiac output, blood glucose monitoring, and digestion.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.04.2024
Ketamine produces wide variety of responses in the brain, researchers find
Since Yale researchers first observed the ability of the anesthetic ketamine to dramatically improve symptoms in many patients with treatment-resistant depression more than two decades ago, the drug has provided a powerful new therapeutic option for mental health professionals. However, only 65% of patients treated with ketamine respond to therapy and a new Yale-led study published April 17 in the journal eLife helps explain why.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 17.04.2024
Plant sensors could act as an early warning system for farmers
Sensors that detect plant signaling molecules can reveal when crops are experiencing too much light or heat, or attack from insects or microbes. Using a pair of sensors made from carbon nanotubes, researchers from MIT and the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) have discovered signals that reveal when plans are experiencing stresses such as heat, light, or attack from insects or bacteria.
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