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Mathematics - Physics - 13.08.2018
MIT mathematicians solve age-old spaghetti mystery
MIT mathematicians solve age-old spaghetti mystery
It's nearly impossible to break a dry spaghetti noodle into only two pieces. A new MIT study shows how and why it can be done. If you happen to have a box of spaghetti in your pantry, try this experiment: Pull out a single spaghetti stick and hold it at both ends. Now bend it until it breaks. How many fragments did you make? If the answer is three or more, pull out another stick and try again.

Mathematics - Environment - 09.08.2018
Half of London car crashes take place in 5% of the city's junctions
Half of London car crashes take place in 5% of the city’s junctions
The location of road accidents is not random and they tend to be highly concentrated in urban areas, according to a new UCL study. The study, published in the open-access journal Plos One , found that nearly 50% of the serious and fatal accidents in London take place in 5% of road junctions.   PhD candidate Rafael Prieto Curiel, lead researcher (UCL Mathematics), said: "Despite being a rare event, road accidents are among the top ten causes of death worldwide.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 06.08.2018
Better sleep linked with family tree strength
Better sleep linked with family tree strength
The question of why we sleep has been a longstanding subject of debate, with some theories suggesting that slumber provides respite for the brain, which allows it to filter out insignificant neural connections, build new ones, strengthen memories and even repair itself. However, new Oxford University research has used mathematical approaches to tackle the adaptive significance of sleep, and suggests that it has another equally significant purpose - boosting our 'fitness' and future family line reproductive success.

Mathematics - Physics - 06.08.2018
"No one can be this lucky": Mathematician Prof. Raimar Wulkenhaar talks about solving a seemingly unsolvable equation
After ten years, Prof. Raimar Wulkenhaar from the University of Münster's Mathematical Institute and his colleague Dr. Erik Panzer from the University of Oxford have solved a mathematical equation which was considered to be unsolvable. The equation is to be used to find answers to questions posed by elementary particle physics.

Linguistics / Literature - Mathematics - 03.08.2018
Is storytelling an enemy of science?
Have you heard the one about the linguist, astrophysicist, playwright, cancer researcher and screenwriter getting together to vigorously debate the validity of storytelling in science? This is not fiction, but a true story. Hear compelling arguments from both sides, as our expert panel discusses whether storytelling is a friend or foe for researchers.

Computer Science - Mathematics - 12.07.2018
Yihong Wu creates new tools for digging into data
Somewhere, buried deep inside mountains of information, awaits the human dimension of data. It's the small subset of material that, when properly selected, sheds light on something important, such as public policy or DNA sequencing. This is the scientific territory where Yihong Wu, a Yale assistant professor of statistics and data science, has set up shop.

Health - Mathematics - 28.06.2018
The value of late-in-life health care spending
The value of late-in-life health care spending
Around 25 percent of Medicare spending in the U.S. occurs in the last year of people's lives. This is sometimes discussed as a questionable use of resources: Is society throwing large amounts of medical treatment at some patients in a futile, if noble, effort to extend lives that are bound to end soon? A new study co-authored by an MIT health care economist offers a resounding answer: No.

Mathematics - 20.06.2018
Stubborn sparrows may have sung the same songs for hundreds of years
By preserving songs for centuries, American swamp sparrows show a cultural stability previously only seen in humans. Local populations of birds may have sung the same songs for hundreds of years and passed them on through the generations, according to researchers at Imperial College London, Queen Mary University of London and Duke University.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 20.06.2018
Computational Method Puts Finer Point on Multispecies Genomic Comparisons
Probabilistic model could provide insights into what makes a human a human A new computational tool will potentially help geneticists to better understand what makes a human a human, or how to differentiate species in general, by providing more detailed comparative information about genome function.

Computer Science - Mathematics - 07.06.2018
UCLA faculty voice: Artificial intelligence can't reason why
UCLA faculty voice: Artificial intelligence can’t reason why
The current data-crunching approach to machine learning misses an essential element of human intelligence Judea Pearl and Dana Mackenzie Judea Pearl is chancellor's professor of computer science and statistics at UCLA and co-author of " The Book of Why: The Science of Cause and Effect " with Dana Mackenzie, a mathematics writer.

Health - Mathematics - 07.06.2018
Cost and scale of field trials for bovine TB vaccine may make them unfeasible
Cost and scale of field trials for bovine TB vaccine may make them unfeasible
Field trials for a vaccine to protect cattle against bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB) would need to involve 500 herds - potentially as many as 75,000-100,000 cattle - to demonstrate cost effectiveness for farmers, concludes a study published today in the journal eLife . Our results highlight the enormous scale of trials that would be necessary to evaluate BCG alongside continuing testing in the field.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 06.06.2018
How the brain performs flexible computations
How the brain performs flexible computations
Humans can perform a vast array of mental operations and adjust their behavioral responses based on external instructions and internal beliefs. For example, to tap your feet to a musical beat, your brain has to process the incoming sound and also use your internal knowledge of how the song goes. MIT neuroscientists have now identified a strategy that the brain uses to rapidly select and flexibly perform different mental operations.

Physics - Mathematics - 05.06.2018
UW physicists, CERN announce discovery of Higgs boson interactions
A researcher works on a semiconductor tracker barrel for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. © CERN The international particle accelerator collaboration CERN announced Monday, June 4, that two experiments at the Large Hadron Collider discovered a link between the two heaviest known particles: the top quark and the Higgs boson.

Physics - Mathematics - 01.06.2018
AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles
AI-based method could speed development of specialized nanoparticles
A new technique developed by MIT physicists could someday provide a way to custom-design multilayered nanoparticles with desired properties, potentially for use in displays, cloaking systems, or biomedical devices. It may also help physicists tackle a variety of thorny research problems, in ways that could in some cases be orders of magnitude faster than existing methods.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 30.05.2018
War, clan structure explain odd biological event
Genetic data suggest there was a collapse in male, but not female, genetic diversity starting 7,000 years ago. The reason may be wars between clans structured around male ancestry. Starting about 7,000 years ago, something weird seems to have happened to men: Over the next two millennia, recent studies suggest, their genetic diversity -specifically, the diversity of their Y chromosomes - collapsed.

Transport - Mathematics - 23.05.2018
How many taxis does a city need?
How many taxis does a city need?
The rise of self-driving cars is set to dramatically alter the way we move around cities in the future. In particular, private car ownership is expected to shift toward shared mobility services, with vehicle fleet operators offering on-demand transportation. This should help to reduce traffic in urban areas and cut greenhouse gas emissions.

Life Sciences - Mathematics - 22.05.2018
Extremely fast dives help peregrine falcons manoeuvre to catch agile prey | University of Oxford
Using detailed computer simulations, Oxford University research has revealed why falcons dive at their prey using the same steering laws as man-made missiles. Published today in PLOS Computational Biology, researchers from Oxford's Department of Zoology use computer simulations of peregrine falcon attacks to show that the extreme speeds reached during dives from high altitudes enhance the raptors' ability to execute manoeuvres needed to successfully attack agile prey that would otherwise escape.

Physics - Mathematics - 16.05.2018
New theory describes intricacies of a splashing droplet
New theory describes intricacies of a splashing droplet
As a single raindrop falls to the ground, it can splash back up in a crown-like sheet, spraying smaller droplets from its rim before sinking back to the surface - all in the blink of an eye. Now researchers at MIT have found a way to track the thickness of a droplet's rim as it splashes up from a variety of surfaces.

Mathematics - Life Sciences - 10.05.2018
How heart tissue combines mechanical strength and electrical reliability
The human heart can be viewed as both a mechanical and an electrical device - one that contracts and pumps billions of times over an average lifespan. How does it manage to achieve this feat without lapsing into dangerous irregularities? New research by McGill University scientists finds that the answer lies in the particular geometry of the muscle fibres of the heart wall.

Computer Science - Mathematics - 09.05.2018
Fundamental equations guide marine robots to optimal sampling sites
Fundamental equations guide marine robots to optimal sampling sites
Observing the world's oceans is increasingly a mission assigned to autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) - marine robots that are designed to drift, drive, or glide through the ocean without any real-time input from human operators. Critical questions that AUVs can help to answer are where, when, and what to sample for the most informative data, and how to optimally reach sampling locations.