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Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)


Results 61 - 80 of 365.


Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 08.04.2021
More than 5,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust fall to Earth each year
More than 5,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust fall to Earth each year
Every year, our planet encounters dust from comets 1 and asteroid 2 . These interplanetary dust particles pass through our atmosphere and give rise to shooting stars. Some of them reach the ground in the form of micrometeorites. An international program 3 conducted for nearly 20 years by scientists from the CNRS, the Université Paris-Saclay and the National museum of natural history 4 with the support of the French polar institute, has determined that 5,200 tons per year of these micrometeorites reach the ground.

Physics - 07.04.2021
Particle physics: will muons lead us towards a new physics?
Particle physics: will muons lead us towards a new physics?
Muons, particles akin to electrons, have kept physicists' heads spinning for more than a decade, because an experimental measurement of their magnetic properties 1 disagrees from theory. Could this be caused by unknown particles or forces? A new theoretical calculation of this parameter, involving CNRS physicists and published , has reduced the discrepancy with the experimental measurement.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.04.2021
A protein with a dual role: both repair and mutation
A protein with a dual role: both repair and mutation
The Mfd protein repairs bacterial DNA, but can also, to scientists' surprise, promote mutation. Bacterial mutations can lead to antibiotic resistance. Understanding this second "role" of the Mfd protein opens up opportunities for combating antibiotic resistance, and also the resistance of tumours to anti-cancer drugs and therapies.

Life Sciences - 31.03.2021
A brain signature that predicts vulnerability to addiction
A team of neurobiologists at the Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone (CNRS/Aix-Marseille Université) has just shown that within a population of rats it can predict which will become cocaine addicts. One of the criteria for addiction in rats is the compulsive search for a drug despite its negative consequences.

Environment - Economics / Business - 31.03.2021
How much are invasive species costing us'
How much are invasive species costing us’
A + A Scientists from the CNRS, the IRD, and the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle have just released the most comprehensive estimate to date of the financial toll of invasive species: nearly $1.3 trillion over four decades. Published in Nature (31 March 2021), their findings are based on the InvaCost database, which is financed by the BNP Paribas Foundation and the Paris-Saclay University Foundation's AXA Chair of Invasion Biology.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 24.03.2021
Astronomers Image Magnetic Fields at the Edge of M87's Black Hole
Astronomers Image Magnetic Fields at the Edge of M87’s Black Hole
A + A Within the EHT collaboration, the CNRS and IRAM participated in the creation of a new image of the black hole in the M87 galaxy. Produced in so-called "polarized" light, this image makes it possible to observe the magnetic field and to better understand the physics around black holes. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, who produced the first ever image of a black hole , has revealed today a new view of the massive object at the centre of the M87 galaxy: how it looks in polarised light.

Environment - 24.03.2021
Climate change has reduced ocean mixing far more than expected
Climate change has reduced ocean mixing far more than expected
A + A The ocean is dynamic in nature, playing a crucial role as a planetary thermostat that buffer global warming. However, in response to climate change, the ocean has generally become stabler over the past 50 years. Six times stabler, in fact, than previously estimated-as shown by a new study that researchers from the CNRS, Sorbonne University, and IFREMER have conducted within the scope of an international collaboration.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 18.03.2021
First images of the cosmic web reveal a myriad of unsuspected dwarf galaxies
First images of the cosmic web reveal a myriad of unsuspected dwarf galaxies
A + A The MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope has captured an image of several filaments in the early Universe... ... revealing the unexpected presence of billions of dwarf galaxies in the filaments Although the filaments of gas in which galaxies are born have long been predicted by cosmological models, we have so far had no real images of such objects.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 18.03.2021
Discovery of a 'winged' shark in the Cretaceous seas
Discovery of a ’winged’ shark in the Cretaceous seas
A + A The fossil of an unusual shark specimen reminiscent of manta rays sheds light on morphological diversity in Cretaceous sharks. This plankton feeder was discovered in Mexico and analysed by an international team of palaeontologists led by a CNRS researcher from Géosciences Rennes (CNRS/University of Rennes 1).

Life Sciences - Health - 10.03.2021
Bacteria and viruses: a network of intestinal relationships
Bacteria and viruses: a network of intestinal relationships
The balance of human intestinal microbiota, consisting of hundreds of bacterial species and phages (bacteria viruses), is crucial to good health.

Health - Mathematics - 04.03.2021
COVID-19 Screening: A New Model for Assessing the Efficiency of Group Testing
COVID-19 Screening: A New Model for Assessing the Efficiency of Group Testing
How best to evaluate the performance of a group testing strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which involves pooling samples from multiple individuals in order to conduct a single RT-PCR test on the whole group? To do precisely that, scientists from the CNRS, l'université Grenoble Alpes, and l'université Sorbonne Paris Nord 1 have developed a model that evaluates the efficiency of such tests.

Health - Environment - 11.02.2021
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
What if more inclusive urban planning for poor populations was key to fighting dengue fever? This is what researchers from the CNRS, the Institut Pasteur and the Indian Council of Medical Research 1 have demonstrated using a geographical approach applied to the greater city of Delhi (India). Their study is published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Disease on 11 February 2021.

Astronomy / Space Science - 10.02.2021
Ancient seashell resonates after 18,000 years
Ancient seashell resonates after 18,000 years
Almost 80 years after its discovery, a large shell from the ornate Marsoulas Cave in the Pyrenees has been studied by a multidisciplinary team from the CNRS, the Muséum de Toulouse, the Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès and the Musée du quai Branly - Jacques-Chirac 1 : it is believed to be the oldest wind instrument of its type.

Computer Science - 08.02.2021
Recognizing liars from the sound of their voice?
Recognizing liars from the sound of their voice?
Faster speech rate, greater intensity in the middle of the word, and falling pitch at the end of the word: that is the prosody 1 to adopt if one wants to come across as reliable and honest to one's listeners. Scientists from the Science and Technology for Music and Sound laboratory (CNRS/Ircam/Sorbonne Université/Ministère de la Culture) 2 and the Perceptual Systems Laboratory (CNRS/ENS PSL) have conducted a series of experiments 3   to understand how we decide, based on the voice, whether a speaker is honest and confident, or on the contrary dishonest and uncertain.

Physics - 08.02.2021
The quantum advantage: a novel demonstration
Is a quantum machine really more efficient than a conventional machine for performing calculations? Demonstrating this 'advantage' experimentally is particularly complex and a major research challenge around the world 1. Scientists from the CNRS 2 , the University of Edinburgh (Scotland) and the QC Ware, Corp., (France and USA) have just proved that a quantum machine can perform a given verification task in seconds when the same exercise would take a time equivalent to the age of the universe for a conventional computer.

Astronomy / Space Science - 04.02.2021
The CNRS welcomes France’s commitment to the construction and operation of the largest radio astronomy instrument ever built
The SKA Observatory will design and build the most sensitive radio astronomy instrument ever created, operating over an unmatched radio-wave range. It is expected to study the formation of the very first stars and galaxies shortly after the Big Bang. SKA will produce a data stream that exceeds today's global internet traffic and Facebook's current storage needs.

Astronomy / Space Science - 02.02.2021
Exoplanets: SPIRou carries out first ever measurement of a very young planet's density
Exoplanets: SPIRou carries out first ever measurement of a very young planet’s density
A research team led by scientists from IRAP (CNRS/CNES/Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier) and IPAG (CNRS/UGA) 1 has for the first time measured the internal density of a very young exoplanet orbiting a newly formed, extremely active star. Despite the 'noise' generated by the star's activity, they successfully achieved this using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)'s planet hunting instrument SPIRou.

History / Archeology - Environment - 27.01.2021
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
Although the reputation of Champagne is well established, the history of Champagne wines and vineyards is poorly documented. However, a research team led by scientists from the CNRS and the Université de Montpellier at the Institut des sciences de l'évolution de Montpellier 1 has just lifted the veil on this history by analysing the archaeological grape seeds from excavations carried out in Troyes and Reims.

Astronomy / Space Science - 18.01.2021
Saturn's tilt caused by its moons
Saturn’s tilt caused by its moons
Two scientists from CNRS and Sorbonne University working at the Institute of Celestial Mechanics and Ephemeris Calculation (Paris Observatory - PSL/CNRS) have just shown that the influence of Saturn's satellites can explain the tilt of the rotation axis of the gas giant. Rather like David versus Goliath, it appears that Saturn's tilt may in fact be caused by its moons.

Life Sciences - 29.12.2020
A single gene 'invented' haemoglobin several times
A single gene ’invented’ haemoglobin several times
Thanks to the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii , an animal whose genes have evolved very slowly, scientists from CNRS, Université de Paris and Sorbonne Université, in association with others at the University of Saint Petersburg and the University of Rio de Janeiro, have shown that while haemoglobin appeared independently in several species, it actually descends from a single gene transmitted to all by their last common ancestor.