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Health - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Discovery of a mechanism for bacterial adaptation to certain antibiotics
Discovery of a mechanism for bacterial adaptation to certain antibiotics
Researchers from the Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla- IBiS, the University of Seville and the Virgen Macarena University Hospital publish a study that explores in depth the mechanisms that block the development of resistance in bacteria.

Health - Physics - 11.07.2024
Unique scanner developed for planning proton therapy against cancer
A collaboration led by Enrique Nácher, from the Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC), has developed the first fully Spanish proton tomography scanner. The device reuses prototypes from other nuclear physics projects and has been tested at a proton therapy centre in Poland. The first results of this project, developed in collaboration with the Institute of Structure of Matter (IEM-CSIC) and the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), have been published in The European Physical Journal Plus.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
’ChatGPT’ for biomedical simulations
The artificial intelligence (AI) model GPT-4, known from its application in ChatGPT, shows impressive capabilities in biomedical research and can be used in many ways for simulations. A simulator developed at MedUni Vienna and based on GPT-4 shows increased accuracy in classifying the importance of genes in cancer cells, as well as in the prognosis of cancer patients.

Life Sciences - Environment - 11.07.2024
Even fish society shows social control and nepotism
Even fish society shows social control and nepotism
Cichlids living in groups tend to turn a blind eye to their relatives shirking their duty to help as desired in various tasks in the group, such as caring for the brood. Animals that are not related to them don't seem to be offered the same lenient treatment. Researchers at the University of Bern have now been able to prove the existence of this form of "nepotism" in fish for the first time in experiments.

Health - Computer Science - 11.07.2024
COVID-19 phone apps shown to provide real-time information on the spread of infectious diseases
Researchers analysing data from mobile phone apps used during the COVID-19 pandemic found that digital contact tracing provides rich insights into epidemic dynamics with unprecedented resolution and speed, revealing how transmission varied by day of the week, gatherings during the 2021 Christmas period, and the UEFA Euro football tournament in July 2021.

Health - Economics - 11.07.2024
Better food policies needed to combat obesity and overnutrition in South Asia
New research highlights an urgent need for more effective food policies to address rising levels of obesity in South Asia. Better food labelling, healthier school meals, and taxes on unhealthy foods are needed to address the rising health impacts of 'overnutrition' in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, according to a new comparative analysis led by Imperial College Business School.

Chemistry - Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Biological Science Helps Fuel the Future of Electric Air Travel
When it comes to figuring out why electric aircraft batteries lose power over time, one typically wouldn't think to turn to a decades-old approach biologists use to study the structure and function of components in living organisms. However, it turns out that omics, a field that helped scientists unravel the secrets of the human genome, could also soon play a key role in making carbon-free air travel a reality.

Environment - Architecture - 11.07.2024
Designing a decision-support tool for climate adaptive urban planning
Designing a decision-support tool for climate adaptive urban planning
Heat stress and air pollution ravages cities more and more. In a new Horizon Europe project, researchers will develop a digital twin that supports decision makers to design resilient urban areas that can cope with the changing climate. Researchers from TU Delft and 18 other partners receive the Horizon Europe grant for their project called UrbanAIR.

Life Sciences - Environment - 11.07.2024
A motor for cell-free metabolism
A motor for cell-free metabolism
Researchers have developed the first cell-free system in which genetic information and metabolism work together Metabolic processes outside living cells only continue as long as they are supplied with building blocks from the outside. A team of Max Planck researchers led by Tobias Erb has now developed the first in vitro system inspired by nature that couples genetics and metabolism and can drive itself.

Astronomy / Space - 11.07.2024
Nearest massive black hole
With 8200 solar masses, the black hole fills the evolutionary gap between stellar and supermassive black holes Newly identified fast-moving stars in the star cluster Omega Centauri provide solid evidence for a central black hole in the cluster. With at least 8200 solar masses, it is the best candidate for a class of black holes astronomers have long believed to exist: intermediate-mass black holes, formed in the early stages of galaxy evolution.

Astronomy / Space - 11.07.2024
Astronomers amazed by black hole discovery
Astronomers amazed by black hole discovery
A massive black hole - about 20,000 times the size of the sun - has been confirmed as the closest to our solar system by an international study involving University of Queensland researchers. This discovery validates decades of speculation about the black hole's existence, which the team found at the centre of the neighbouring star cluster Omega Centauri in the Milky Way, about 18,000 light-years from our solar system.

Computer Science - Health - 11.07.2024
When to trust an AI model
More accurate uncertainty estimates could help users decide about how and when to use machine-learning models in the real world. Because machine-learning models can give false predictions, researchers often equip them with the ability to tell a user how confident they are about a certain decision. This is especially important in high-stake settings, such as when models are used to help identify disease in medical images or filter job applications.

Linguistics / Literature - 11.07.2024
Reasoning skills of large language models are often overestimated
New CSAIL research highlights how LLMs excel in familiar scenarios but struggle in novel ones, questioning their true reasoning abilities versus reliance on memorization. When it comes to artificial intelligence, appearances can be deceiving. The mystery surrounding the inner workings of large language models (LLMs) stems from their vast size, complex training methods, hard-to-predict behaviors, and elusive interpretability.

Life Sciences - 11.07.2024
Muscle machine: How water controls the speed of muscle contraction
The flow of water within a muscle fiber may dictate how quickly muscle can contract, according to a University of Michigan study. Nearly all'animals use muscle to move, and it's been known for a long time that muscle, like all'other cells, is composed of about 70% water. But researchers don't know what sets the range and upper limits of muscle performance.

Chemistry - Materials Science - 11.07.2024
Electric aviation: Batteries that stay strong for the flight duration
Borrowing methods from biology, a team of scientists and engineers designed and tested an electrolyte that keeps battery power delivery high, cycle after cycle Study: Omics-enabled understanding of electric aircraft battery electrolytes (DOI: 10.1016/j.joule. A battery component innovation could help keep power delivery high when electric aircraft land with low charge, according to a study led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with expertise from the University of Michigan.

Environment - Health - 11.07.2024
Health risks in switching ships from diesel to ammonia fuel
Ammonia could be a nearly carbon-free maritime fuel, but without new emissions regulations, its impact on air quality could significantly impact human health. As container ships the size of city blocks cross the oceans to deliver cargo, their huge diesel engines emit large quantities of air pollutants that drive climate change and have human health impacts.

Health - Pharmacology - 10.07.2024
Cancer experts outline critical challenges facing the new UK Government
Leading doctors and researchers have warned critical challenges in cancer care in the UK need to be urgently addressed by policymakers. In a review published in The Lancet Oncology , a team of UK cancer care professionals has outlined ten time-critical issues impacting the delivery of cancer care services by the NHS.

Health - 10.07.2024
Loneliness increases risk of age-related memory loss
Loneliness increases risk of age-related memory loss
About a third of Canadians feel lonely, and a study from the University of Waterloo shows it has a greater negative impact on memory than even social isolation, though both present a significant risk to the aging population. Loneliness is a subjective emotion that people might feel even while engaging in social activities.

History / Archeology - Materials Science - 10.07.2024
Prehistoric craftsmen created fake amber beads
Prehistoric craftsmen created fake amber beads
A US research team unveils this practice, which was intended to meet the demand in places where amber was scarce. A study by the QUANTAS research group of the University of Seville has revealed that prehistoric communities in Spain and Portugal developed the first known composite to simulate amber, reflecting the development of complex technical systems by these Neolithic artisans in regions where amber was scarce.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 10.07.2024
Mozambican Woodlands could store more than double the carbon previously estimated
Mozambican Woodlands could store more than double the carbon previously estimated
The capacity of Mozambican woodlands to capture and store carbon is underestimated and potentially undervalued for their protection and restoration, finds new research from an international team of scientists including UCL researchers. The research, led by carbon data provider Sylvera and published in Nature Communications Earth & Environment , found that miombo woodlands, which span large areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, store 1.5 to 2.2 times more carbon than had previously been estimated by standard methods.