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Results 41 - 60 of 1738.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 04.12.2019
Reef copes with rapid sea-level rise
Reef copes with rapid sea-level rise
PhD student Kelsey Sanborn has shown how the reef has dealt with environmental stresses in the recent past in order to understand how it might react to climate change in the future. A new study into the recent history of the Great Barrier Reef has shown how it responds to rapid sea-level rise and other environmental stresses.

Pharmacology - Psychology - 03.12.2019
Chronic opioid treatment may raise risk of post-traumatic stress disorder
While opioids are often prescribed to treat people with trauma-related pain, a new UCLA-led study suggests doctors should use caution before prescribing the drug to those they believe may experience severe stress in the future, in order to reduce the risk the patient will develop PTSD. In the study, researchers administered doses of the opioid morphine to a group of 22 mice for one week, then gave the mice relatively strong foot shocks.

Pharmacology - Health - 03.12.2019
One dose of radiotherapy as effective as five doses for cancer in the spine
A single dose of radiotherapy is as "effective" as five doses for end-of-life cancer patients suffering with painful spinal canal compression, finds a large study conducted by UCL. Spinal canal compression is a common complication in cancer patients when the cancer has spread to their spine. Radiotherapy is used to control pain and alleviate symptoms.

Life Sciences - Health - 03.12.2019
World first as artificial neurons developed to cure chronic diseases
Artificial neurons on silicon chips that behave just like the real thing have been invented by scientists - a first-of-its-kind achievement with enormous scope for medical devices to cure chronic diseases, such as heart failure, Alzheimer's, and other diseases of neuronal degeneration. Critically the artificial neurons not only behave just like biological neurons but only need one billionth the power of a microprocessor, making them ideally suited for use in medical implants and other bio-electronic devices.

Administration - 03.12.2019
Opinion poll lessons reveal deficit in Government safety spending
Opinion poll lessons reveal deficit in Government safety spending
The government currently uses a measure known as the value of a prevented fatality or VPF to determine spending on safety across several major departments, including the Department for Transport. In contrast with political opinion polls, which generally survey a minimum of 1,000 people to achieve the standard three per cent margin of error, the VPF is based on a survey of only 167 people, carried out 20 years ago.

Environment - Life Sciences - 03.12.2019
For some corals, meals can come with a side of microplastics
Under a black light, fluorescent green microplastics are seen in the water during a small demonstration experiment. In the 2018 experiment described in the paper, cauliflower coral (above) ingested microplastics when prey was also present in the water, but avoided eating microplastics when no prey was there.

Health - Life Sciences - 03.12.2019
Rare Disease Q&A: What Rare Diseases Are and Why That Matters
Rare Disease Q&A: What Rare Diseases Are and Why That Matters
Rare diseases are … rare, right? Not as rare as you might think. As much as 10% of the population is thought to have a "rare disease." Unfortunately, due to a lack of understanding, many rare diseases remain very difficult to diagnose and treat. Inspired by the enormous unmet needs of people with rare diseases, a group of scientists from across the globe has teamed up to develop open-access tools and resources for sharing disease characteristics and treatment information.

Administration - 03.12.2019
Cultural differences account for global gap in online regulation - study
Differences in cultural values have led some countries to tackle the spectre of cyber-attacks with increased internet regulation, whilst others have taken a ‘hands-off' approach to online security - a new study shows. Internet users gravitate towards one of two ‘poles' of social values. Risk-taking users are found in ‘competitive' national cultures prompting heavy regulation, whilst web users in ‘co-operative' nations exhibit less risky behaviour requiring lighter regulation.

Materials Science - Health - 03.12.2019
Paradoxical replacement tissue for medicine
Paradoxical replacement tissue for medicine
A material that thickens when you pull on it seems to contradict the laws of physics. However, the so-called auxetic effect, which also occurs in nature, is interesting for a number of applications. A new Empa study recently published in "Nature Communications" shows how this amazing behavior can be improved - and even used to treat injuries and tissue damage.

Chemistry - Pharmacology - 03.12.2019
Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand
Two chiral catalysts working hand in hand
Chemists at MŁnster University develop a synthetic method providing access to different stereoisomers of a molecule / Study published in 'Nature Catalysis' Just as our left hand is not superposable to our right hand, the mirror image of certain molecules cannot be overlapped onto it, even when turned or twisted.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 03.12.2019
Analysis: We may have solved the mystery of how landslides form on Mars
Mars's huge landslides can move at speeds of up to 360 kilometres an hour for up to tens of kilometres. PhD candidate Giulia Magnarini and Dr Tom Mitchell (UCL Earth Sciences) write about how these landslides may have formed. Some landslides on Mars seem to defy an important law of physics. "Long, runout landslides" are formed by huge volumes of rock and soil moving downslope, largely due to the force of gravity.

Health - Pharmacology - 03.12.2019
Shows why visceral fat increases with age and impairs metabolism
Aging is associated with increased inflammation and metabolic disease, including the accumulation of visceral fat - fat stored in the abdominal cavity - which is thought to contribute to inflammation. New research from University of Minnesota faculty member Christina Camell has helped uncover why visceral fat increases with age and points to new treatment possibilities for improving metabolic health.

Environment - 03.12.2019
Underground answers
As the world waxes warmer, scientists are scrambling to prioritize conservation efforts. A new global study of earthworm diversity suggests looking at soil, as climate change could seriously affect earthworms and the many functions they provide. Based on data compiled from 6,928 sites in 57 countries (including over 100 sites sampled by University of Minnesota researcher†and study coauthor Adrian Wackett), the work reveals that climate variables-temperature and especially precipitation-influence earthworm distributions and diversity far more than the properties of the soils they inhabit.

Pharmacology - Health - 02.12.2019
Face mask can help combat mild cases of sleep condition
Face mask can help combat mild cases of sleep condition
A night time face mask can improve energy levels and vitality in people who suffer from the condition sleep apnoea. This is the finding from a new study of over 200 patients, published in the journal The Lancet Respiratory Medicine , led by Imperial College London. We are seeing increasing cases of sleep apnoea, and in a wide range of patients.

Environment - Life Sciences - 02.12.2019
Reveals climate change impact on Antarctic penguins | University of Oxford
Reveals climate change impact on Antarctic penguins | University of Oxford
Antarctic†penguins have been on the†forefront†of†climate change,†experiencing massive changes to their natural habitat as the world's temperatures and human activity in the region have increased. Now, new research has revealed how†penguins have dealt with more than a century of human impacts in Antarctica and why some species are winners or losers in this rapidly changing ecosystem.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 02.12.2019
1940s blood samples reveal historical spread of malaria
DNA from 75-year old eradicated European malaria parasites uncovers the historical spread of one of the two most common forms of the disease, Plasmodium vivax, from Europe to the Americas during the colonial period, finds a new study co-led by UCL. The research published in Molecular Biology and Evolution reports the genome sequence of a malaria parasite sourced from blood-stained medical microscope slides used in 1944 in Spain, one of the last footholds of malaria in Europe.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 02.12.2019
Designing and re-purposing cell receptors
Designing and re-purposing cell receptors
EPFL scientists have developed a computational method modeling and designing protein allostery that allows the accurate and rational engineering and even re-purposing of cell receptors. The method can be a significant tool for drug development. Called the "second secret of life", allostery is one of the most fundamental processes of biology and has been a central focus among scientists across the life sciences spectrum, from fundamental biology to drug development.

Chemistry - Environment - 02.12.2019
New membrane technology to boost water purification and energy storage
New membrane technology to boost water purification and energy storage
Imperial College London scientists have created a new type of membrane that could improve water purification and battery energy storage efforts. The new approach to ion exchange membrane design, which is published today , uses low-cost plastic membranes with many tiny hydrophilic (‘water-attracting') pores.

Life Sciences - Environment - 02.12.2019
Genomic gymnastics help sorghum plant survive drought
A new study led by UC Berkeley researchers reveals how sorghum crops alter the expression of their genes to adapt to drought conditions. Understanding how sorghum survives harsh conditions could help researchers design crops that are more resilient to climate change. (UC Berkeley photo by Peggy Lemaux) Scorching temperatures and parched earth are no match for the sorghum plant - this cereal crop, native to Africa and Australia, will remain green and productive, even under conditions that would render other plants brown, brittle and barren.

Chemistry - 02.12.2019
Chemistry breakthrough could help produce new drugs, molecules
Olefins are one of those molecules that most people don't recognize, but that appear all around us: in bottles, in medicines, in wetsuits and in tires. Now, University of Chicago chemists have discovered an efficient method to make a kind of olefin†with four different attachments-used in†everything from medicines to new ways to store data.

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