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Results 41 - 60 of 1720.

Social Sciences - 15.10.2019
New links between food access and risk of malnutrition for older people
New research has highlighted that food insecurity - a measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it - is putting older people in Scotland at risk of becoming underweight and malnourished. The ongoing study from the University of Glasgow and the Scottish charity Food Train is focused on the current issues facing older adults and food access.

Materials Science - Physics - 15.10.2019
Physicists shed new light on how liquids behave with other materials
Using a range of theoretical and simulation approaches, physicists from the University of Bristol have shown that liquids in contact with substrates can exhibit a finite number of classes of behaviour and identify the important new ones. Their findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) , challenge the accepted wisdom on wetting and drying phase behaviour.

Health - Life Sciences - 15.10.2019
Cell family trees tracked to discover their role in tissue scarring and liver disease
Cell family trees tracked to discover their role in tissue scarring and liver disease
Researchers have discovered that a key cell type involved in liver injury and cancer consists of two cellular families with different origins and functions. The research by academics from the Universities of Edinburgh and Bristol and funded by the Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council, is published today [Tuesday 15 October] .

Life Sciences - 15.10.2019
Piranha fish swap old teeth for new simultaneously
A CT-scanned image of the piranha Serrasalmus medinai. Note the ingested fish fins in its stomach. University of Washington Piranha fish have a powerful bite. Their teeth help them shred through the flesh of their prey or even scrape plants off rocks to supplement their diet. Years ago, scientists discovered that piranhas lose all of the teeth on one side of their mouth at once and regrow them, presumably to replace dulled teeth with brand new sharp spears for gnawing on prey.

Computer Science / Telecom - 15.10.2019
Female-led Team Uses AI to Help Machines Play Nice with Humans
An interdisciplinary group of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University has received a $2.8 million DARPA grant to enhance machine-human team collaborations Three Carnegie Mellon University researchers - the lead investigator, Anita Williams Woolley at the Tepper School of Business , along with co-investigators Cleotilde Gonzalez at the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences and Henny Admoni at The Robotics Institute - are l

Social Sciences - 15.10.2019
High numbers of young people experimenting with gambling
Two fifths (41%) of young people aged 11 to 16 report having engaged in gambling in the past year, a study shows. The analysis from Cardiff University academics, the largest of its kind in the UK, reveals fruit machines at an arcade, pub or club were the most popular form of gambling, followed by playing cards for money with friends and purchasing scratch cards.

Social Sciences - Computer Science / Telecom - 15.10.2019
Increase in online hate speech leads to more crimes against minorities
An increase in hate speech on social media leads to more crimes against minorities in the physical world, a study shows. Academics from Cardiff University's HateLab project collected Twitter and police recorded crime data from London over an eight-month period to analyse whether a significant association existed.

Health - Music - 15.10.2019
First smart speaker system that uses white noise to monitor infants' breathing
First smart speaker system that uses white noise to monitor infants’ breathing
Gone are the days when people use smart speakers - like Amazon Echo or Google Home - only as kitchen timers or dinner party music players. These devices have started helping people track their own health, and can even monitor for cardiac arrest. Now researchers at the University of Washington have developed a new smart speaker skill that lets a device use white noise to both soothe sleeping babies and monitor their breathing and movement.

Life Sciences - 15.10.2019
The Brain Does not Follow the Head
The Brain Does not Follow the Head
The human brain is about three times the size of the brains of great apes. This has to do, among other things, with the evolution of novel brain structures that enabled complex behaviors such as language and tool production. A study by anthropologists at the University of Zurich now shows that changes in the brain occurred independent of evolutionary rearrangements of the braincase.

Physics - 15.10.2019
Quantum physics: ménage à trois photon-style
Quantum physics: ménage à trois photon-style
Physicists from UNIGE have discovered a new quantum property: by placing three pairs of photons in a network, it is possible to entangle them and create new ultra-strong correlations. Entanglement is one of the properties specific to quantum particles. When two photons become entangled, for instance, the quantum state of the first will correlate perfectly with the quantum state of the second, even if they are at a distance from one another.

Pharmacology - Chemistry - 15.10.2019
Estuarine waters hold promise in global pain-relief hunt
In a world first, a team of Australian-led researchers has discovered a uniquely shaped fungus in pristine waters, which may mimic opioids with fewer side-effects. It had been hoped that such a molecular structure might exist. The worldwide search for an opioid alternative has made a leap forward - with a scientific discovery in an Australian fungus indicating effective pain relief and the potential for a safer less addictive drug, helping address the opioid epidemic of deaths by overdose.

Social Sciences - 15.10.2019
CMU, AAU Report Findings from Sexual Assault, Misconduct Survey
Results from the Association of American Universities' (AAU) Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Misconduct, a study of 33 universities including Carnegie Mellon University, have been published on CMU's Office of Title IX Initiatives' website. The results include the aggregate report of all participating institutions, a CMU specific report, and a comparison summary compiled by CMU's Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

Materials Science - 14.10.2019
Cells’ mitochondria work much like Tesla battery packs
For years, scientists assumed that mitochondria — the energy-generating centers of living cells — worked much like household batteries, generating energy from a chemical reaction inside a single chamber or cell. Now, UCLA researchers have shown that mitochondria are instead made up of many individual bioelectric units that generate energy in an array, similar to a Tesla electric car battery that packs thousands of battery cells to manage energy safely and provide fast access to very high current.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 14.10.2019
Tissue damage caused by a heart attack to be reduced by 30%?
Tissue damage caused by a heart attack to be reduced by 30%?
Scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Lyon have discovered which molecule is held responsible for tissue necrosis due to an infarctus, and how to reduce the tissue damage by 30% in mice. Each year, heart attacks kill almost 10 million people in the world, and more than 6 million die from stroke.

Social Sciences - 14.10.2019
Integration of refugees: Germans in east and west show similar willingness to help
Integration of refugees: Germans in east and west show similar willingness to help
In discussions in Germany on immigrants, particularly eastern Germany is often associated with attacks on foreigners and hate crimes against refugees. Research data and surveys also indicate that prejudices against immigrants are often stronger in the east of the country than in the western half. But are these differences also reflected in small acts of everyday help? This question was looked at in detail by researchers at the University of Münster, the University of Bielefeld and the University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration and management of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Life Sciences - 14.10.2019
Investing in love and affection pays off for species that mate for life
The males of species that form long-lasting pair-bonds, like many birds, often continue to make elaborate displays of plumage, colors and dances after they mate with a female. While their time and energy might be better spent taking care of their offspring, these displays also encourage the female to invest more of their energy into the brood.

Astronomy / Space Science - Earth Sciences - 14.10.2019
Q&A: How exploring Venus could unlock our understanding of Earth's future
Q&A: How exploring Venus could unlock our understanding of Earth’s future
As the EnVision mission to Venus is preparing for its planned launch in 2032, we speak to the Imperial researcher who is a part of the Science Team. With its extremely high temperatures and surface veiled by thick clouds, Venus represents an unusual example of planet formation and evolution. Once thought to be a tropical paradise, it was only in the 1960s that scientists were able to observe its hostile environment.

Pharmacology - Health - 14.10.2019
Inactive receptor renders immunotherapies ineffective
Inactive receptor renders immunotherapies ineffective
The aim of immunotherapies is to enable the immune system once again to fight cancer on its own. Drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors are already in clinical use for this purpose. However, they are only effective in about one third of patients. Based on analysis of human tissue samples, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now discovered one reason why this is so: an inactive receptor in cancer cells prevents the drugs from reactivating the immune system.

Health - Pharmacology - 14.10.2019
A Yale-developed drug shows promise as immune therapy for cancer
A therapy developed by Yale researchers stimulates immune cells to shrink or kill tumors in mice, according to a new study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. The therapy is effective alone or in combination with existing cancer immunotherapies, and it appears to have lasting effects, the researchers said.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.10.2019
Scientists help immune system find hidden cancer cells
Cancer cells are masters at avoiding detection, but a new system developed by Yale scientists can make them stand out from the crowd and help the immune system spot and eliminate tumors that other forms of immunotherapies might miss, the researchers report Oct. 14 Immunology. The new system reduced or eliminated melanoma and triple-negative breast and pancreatic tumors in mice, even those located far from the primary tumor source, the researchers report.

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