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Life Sciences - Health - 06.08.2020
A new tool for modeling the human gut microbiome
A new tool for modeling the human gut microbiome
Bacteria linked to Crohn's disease are difficult to grow in the lab, but MIT engineers have found a way. Several thousand strains of bacteria live in the human gut. Some of these are associated with disease, while others have beneficial effects on human health. Figuring out the precise role of each of these bacteria can be difficult, because many of them can't be grown in lab studies using human tissue.

Life Sciences - 06.08.2020
Completing the set: 'Coupon-collection behavior' reduces sex-ratio variation among families
Completing the set: ’Coupon-collection behavior’ reduces sex-ratio variation among families
Share on: Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn A new analysis of sibling records from more than 300,000 individuals suggests that some parents continue to reproduce until they have children of both sexes. The practice, which the two University of Michigan biologists who conducted the study dubbed "coupon-collection behavior” in human reproduction, appears to have increased in popularity in recent decades and reduces the amount of sex-ratio variation among families.

Physics - Electroengineering - 06.08.2020
Efficient valves for electron spins
Efficient valves for electron spins
Researchers at the University of Basel in collaboration with colleagues from Pisa have developed a new concept that uses the electron spin to switch an electrical current. In addition to fundamental research, such spin valves are also the key elements in spintronics - a type of electronics that exploits the spin instead of the charge of electrons.

Health - Mathematics - 06.08.2020
Mathematical program helps perform more efficient radiosurgery
Mathematical program helps perform more efficient radiosurgery
Engineers at EPFL and local startup Intuitive Therapeutics have developed software that can produce optimized surgical plans for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Doctors at the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) began using the software in July. Radiosurgery is a kind of radiotherapy where doctors administer a high dose of radiation to diseased tissue with extreme precision, and in one go rather than over several sessions.

Health - 06.08.2020
Volunteers needed for Covid-19 detection dog trial
Our researchers who are investigating whether specially trained dogs can sniff out Covid-19 in humans are asking people in the North West region of England for help with the trial. The trial will determine whether dogs could be used as a new rapid, non-invasive diagnostic tool for the virus. Before the dogs can be put through their paces, the research team need samples for these super sniffers to carry out their work, and that's where members of the public can help out.

Physics - Chemistry - 06.08.2020
A Closer Look at Water-Splitting's Solar Fuel Potential
A Closer Look at Water-Splitting’s Solar Fuel Potential
Scientists at Berkeley Lab and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis zero in on bismuth vanadate's role in renewable energy at the nanoscale In the fight against climate change, scientists have searched for ways to replace fossil fuels with carbon-free alternatives such as hydrogen fuel. A device known as a photoelectrical chemical cell (PEC) has the potential to produce hydrogen fuel through artificial photosynthesis, an emerging renewable energy technology that uses energy from sunlight to drive chemical reactions such as splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.08.2020
REM sleep tunes eating behaviour
REM sleep tunes eating behaviour
Despite our broad understanding of the different brain regions activated during rapid-eye-movement sleep, little is known about what this activity serves for. Researchers at the University of Bern and the Inselspital have now discovered that the activation of neurons in the hypothalamus during REM sleep regulates eating behaviour: suppressing this activity in mice decreases appetite.

Psychology - 06.08.2020
Conforming to masculine norms may hinder men from seeking help
Share on: Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Some men find strength and stature by adhering to traditional masculine norms, yet these traits can pose as obstacles to mental and physical well-being. These norms surrounding manhood become barriers to young Black men reluctant to receiving the help they need, according to a new University of Michigan study published in the journal Social Work.

Computer Science - Innovation - 06.08.2020
Whiteness of AI erases people of colour from our 'imagined futures', researchers argue
Whiteness of AI erases people of colour from our ’imagined futures’, researchers argue
The overwhelming 'Whiteness' of artificial intelligence - from stock images and cinematic robots to the dialects of virtual assistants - removes people of colour from the way humanity thinks about its technology-enhanced future. If the developer demographic does not diversify, AI stands to exacerbate racial inequality Kanta Dihal This is according to experts at the University of Cambridge, who suggest that current portrayals and stereotypes about AI risk creating a "racially homogenous" workforce of aspiring technologists, building machines with bias baked into their algorithms.

Physics - 06.08.2020
First Evidence for the Higgs Boson Interaction with Muons
Ever since the elusive Higgs boson was discovered in 2012, scientists have sought the answer to the question about how elementary particles—which make up everything in the universe from planets to people—acquired their unique masses. UC San Diego physicists, who were part of the team that made that celestial discovery and who continue that search for an answer, have just made another breakthrough.

Environment - Chemistry - 06.08.2020
New Science Behind Algae-based Flip-flops
Biodegradable shoes meet commercial standards for products needed to help eradicate tons of plastic waste As the world's most popular shoe, flip-flops account for a troubling percentage of plastic waste that ends up in landfills, on seashores and in our oceans. Scientists at the University of California San Diego have spent years working to resolve this problem, and now they have taken a step further toward accomplishing this mission.

Health - Mathematics - 06.08.2020
Mathematical program helps doctors perform more efficient radiosurger
Mathematical program helps doctors perform more efficient radiosurger
Engineers at EPFL and local startup Intuitive Therapeutics have developed software that can produce optimized surgical plans for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Doctors at the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) began using the software in July. Radiosurgery is a kind of radiotherapy where doctors administer a high dose of radiation to diseased tissue with extreme precision, and in one go rather than over several sessions.

Life Sciences - 06.08.2020
New insight into the evolution of complex life on Earth
A novel connection between primordial organisms and complex life has been discovered by a team led by UCL and Lancaster University researchers. The new evidence, published in Science , sheds light on the evolutionary origins of the cell division process that is fundamental to complex life on Earth.

Health - Life Sciences - 06.08.2020
Molecular alterations in neuronal trophic regulation in Alzheimer’s pathology begin decades before detectable cognitive impairments
Findings could lead to development of pre-clinical stage therapeutics By Jason Clement For decades researchers have known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes the atrophy of a system of neurons and synapses highly involved in memory, learning and attention, which is highly dependent on a molecule known as nerve growth factor (NGF).

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 05.08.2020
Ammonia-rich hail sheds new light on Jupiter's weather
Ammonia-rich hail sheds new light on Jupiter’s weather
New Juno results suggest that the violent thunderstorms taking place in Jupiter's atmosphere may form ammonia-rich hail, or 'mushballs', that play a key role in the planet's atmospheric dynamics. This theory, developed using data from Juno's microwave radiometer by the Juno team, is described in two publications led by a researcher at the Laboratoire Lagrange (CNRS/Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur/Université Côte d'Azur) with support from the CNES.

Environment - 05.08.2020
New Guinea Has the World's Richest Island Flora
New Guinea Has the World’s Richest Island Flora
New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world, an international collaboration led by the University of Zurich has shown. The study presents a list of almost 14,000 plant species, compiled from online catalogues and verified by plant experts. The results are invaluable for research and conservation, and also underline the importance of expert knowledge in the digital era.

Life Sciences - 05.08.2020
Autism: How a gene alteration modifies social behavior
Autism: How a gene alteration modifies social behavior
A team of researchers at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has discovered a new connection between a genetic alteration and social difficulties related to autism: A mutation in the neuroligin-3 gene reduces the effect of the hormone oxytocin. In the journal -Nature-, the researchers report on a treatment approach that could normalize social behavior in autism.

Health - Environment - 05.08.2020
Land use changes may increase disease outbreak risks
Global changes in land use are disrupting the balance of wild animal communities in our environment, and species that carry diseases known to infect humans appear to be benefiting, finds a new UCL-led study. The research team, led by the UCL Centre for Biodiversity & Environment Research, studied evidence from 6,801 ecological communities from six continents, and found that animals known to carry pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) that can infect humans were more common in landscapes intensively used by people.

Health - Environment - 05.08.2020
Warming climate may bring more West Nile outbreaks to Southern California
The coastal regions of Southern California are often cooler than inland areas, granting their populations some protection against West Nile virus. (Public domain photo) As climate change heats up the weather in Southern California, coastal populations from San Diego to Santa Barbara may face an increased risk of contracting West Nile virus and other mosquito-borne diseases, suggests a new study led by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley.

Life Sciences - Health - 05.08.2020
Interpreting the Human Genome’s Instruction Manual
A long-running national collaboration has produced a comprehensive catalogue of the molecular elements that regulate our genes An artistic representation of gene regulating elements, which allow cells with the same genetic code to differentiate into many different tissues and play many varied roles in the body.

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